Jumat, 21 Desember 2012

SENJATA-SENJATA PENGHANCUR DALAM BENTUK KONVESIONAL TERSELUBUNG...YANG ISINYA ADALAH NUKLIR....ATAU BOMB ATOM...??? >> SIAPA MEREKA...DAN MENGAPA MEREKA BERNAFSU UNTUK MEMILIKI ITU...??? KAWASAN GLOBAL MENJADI PERTARUNGAN MORAL DAN NAFSU SERAKAH PARA POLITISI DAN KAMPIUN KAPITALIS YANG SELALU INGIN MENGUASAI DUNIA....DENGAN SEGALA CARA...TERMASUK MEMBUNUH-PERANG-INVASI-DAN MEMPERMAINKAN KEKUASAAN DI PBB???? !!! INILAH DAJJAL2 DUNIA YANG SELALU MENGHANCURKAN UMAT MANUSIA...??? WASPADALAH...DAN KEMBALI KEPADA AKAL SEHAT DAN MORAL KEMANUSIAAN...AGAR UMAT MANUSIA SELAMAT...???? AWAS...POLITISI2 DUNIA..YANG SENANG MEMPROVOKASI PEPERANGAN DAN CAMPUR TANGAN DIMANAPUN MEREKA INGINKAN...????!!! >>> WASPADALAH...


Senjata-Senjata Konvensional yang Hampir Sama Mematikannya Seperti Bom Nuklir

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Lupakan soal senjata nuklir, biologi dan kimia karena saat ini di seluruh dunia, terutama wilayah-wilayah bekas konflik di Afrika, timur tengah, indocina, balkan dan sebagainya jutaan anak-anak serta orang-orang tidak berdosa terbunuh oleh senjata-senjata yang di kalangan militer justru disebut sebagai senjata konvensional.

Senjata-senjata seperti bom cluster, Bom fosfor, napalm, peluru DU (Depleted Uranium), ranjau darat sangat populer untuk digunakan di dalam pertempuran karena selain harganya terjangkau bahkan untuk militer negara miskin sekalipun, senjata ini juga memiliki efek merusak yang cukup hebat.

Akan tetapi dalam perkembangannya senjata-senjata ini justru menjadi bom waktu karena justru efeknya sangat terasa pada masa-masa pasca perang.

Beberapa senjata seperti bom cluster dan ranjau darat memang telah dilarang oleh PBB untuk diproduksi dan digunakan dalam peperangan, namun kepentingan bisnis negara-negara produsen seperti AS, Israel, Perancis, RRC, Russia dan sebagainya telah menutup mata hati para politikus dan ahli militer di banyak negara untuk tetap menggunakan dan memproduksi senjata-senjata tersebut.

Untuk pengetahuan kita semua berikut ini adalah beberapa detail senjata-senjata kontroversial tersebut.

1. Cluster Bomb

Bom cluster atau bom tandan atau bom curah adalah bom yang memiliki mekanisme unik dimana setelah diluncurkan dari pesawat tempur atau bomber, bom akan pecah menjadi ratusan bom kecil berupa kaleng.


Pada awalnya bom ini diciptakan untuk menghancurkan landasan pacu pangkalan udara, konvoi kendaraan lapis baja atau untuk membubarkan konsentrasi pasukan darat.

Diproduksi dengan berbagai nama seperti CBU/Cluster Bomb Units (Amerika Serikat), Belouga (Perancis), Excalibur (Amerika Serikat). Secara efektif bom ini digunakan dalam perang Iraq, Afganistan dan perang arab-israel.

2. Napalm Bomb

Banyak negara protes saat Indonesia menggunakan bom napalm dalam operasi Seroja di Timor-Timur tahun 70-an, tapi dalam sekala yang lebih besar AS menggunakan bom ini dalam konflik di Vietnam serta Israel dalam perang Yom Kippur, namun tidak banyak negara yang protes.


Secara teknis napalm adalah bom bakar yang berisi zat kimia berbentuk pasta tertentu yang akan terbakar begitu bom pecah di darat.

Pasta yang cair akan menyebarkan nyala api ke berbagai arah dan bom ini sangat efektif untuk menghancurkan pasukan darat yang bersembuni di parit-parit atau hutan.

3. Peluru DU (Depleted Uranium)

Peluru depleted uranium adalah jenis peluru yang dikembangkan dari limbah Uranium hasil pelucutan bom nuklir. Secara harafiah depleted uranium berarti uranium yang dilemahkan radiasinya.

Peluru ini sangat handal dan menjadi standar senjata meriam gatling GAU-8 Avenger yang dibawa pesawat A-10 serta canon bushmaster pada APC Bradley.


DU juga digunakan untuk membuat inti peluru anti material pada tank Abrams. Efektifitas senjata ini adalah mampu menembus bahan baja tank setebal apapun dan ini terbukti pada perang Iraq dimana ratusan tank Iraq menjadi korban senjata ini.

Yang menjadikan senjata ini kontroversial adalah kandungan uranium yang ternyata menurut penelitian masih memancarkan radiasi dalam tingkatan yang membahayakan manusia.

Ini tebukti pada kasus di bosnia saat beberapa tentara Italia menderita leukemia beberapa hari setelah menggunakan peluru tersebut. di Iraq, tank-tank yang hancur terkena peluru ini ternyata memancarkan radiasi yang membuat tank-tank rongsokan tersebut tidak aman untuk didekati.

Sumber :
kaskus.us






Global Depleted Uranium Stockpiles

Jump to>
World Countries With Depleted Uranium Stockpiles
What Is Depleted Uranium?
Depleted Uranium In Bombs
Human Health Effects After Exposure To Uranium
Related Facts & Figures
WMD & Nuclear Weapons Video

Depleted Uranium (DU) is a highly toxic and mildly radioactive substance, which is a by-product that is produced when Uranium is being turned into fuel for both nuclear power stations, and nuclear bombs. This waste material has recently been packed into bombs by Coalition and NATO forces, and dropped widely across Iraq, Afghanistan and the Balkans, contaminating the land and population for hundreds, if not millions, of years.

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Data released by the WISE Uranium Project - April.21.2008 - No new data online, as of January 29th 2012


References

World Countries With Depleted Uranium Stockpiles

 Total Stock (tonnes) [1]




United States North America United States Department of Energy  480,000
Russia Asia / Europe Rosatom Nuclear Energy State Corporation  460,000
France Europe Areva NC  190,000
United Kingdom Europe British Nuclear Fuels plc    30,000
Germany,
Netherlands
& United Kingdom
Europe Urenco Group    16,000
Japan Asia Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd.    10,000
China Asia China National Nuclear Corporation      2,000
South Korea Asia Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute         200
South Africa Africa South African Nuclear Energy Corporation           73

What Is Depleted Uranium?

In simple terms, to make Nuclear fuel, natural Uranium must be enriched by separating the different Uranium atoms, with certain parts of the Uranium then being used as fuel for nuclear fission - the process which creates nuclear energy - and the leftovers are what we describe as 'Depleted Uranium'. When absorbed by humans and other living creatures, this Depleted Uranium is mildly radioactive, but highly toxic.

Here is a more insightful explanation about how Depleted Uranium is produced:
Natural Uranium is composed of mainly three types of Uranium atoms (also called isotopes). It is composed of approximately 99.27% Uranium-238 (U-238), 0.72% U-235 and 0.0055% U-234. For nuclear reactor fuel, and for nuclear bombs, it is necessary to have the level of U-235 in the Uranium as high as possible, and the enriched portion - which ultimately ends up as nuclear fuel - usually contains most of the U-235. The leftover portion, the Depleted Uranium, mainly consists of U-238, it has less than a third of the natural levels of both U-235 and U-234, and is about 60% as radioactive as natural Uranium, which is significantly less radioactive than the enriched Uranium.

Depleted Uranium can also be a waste product of reprocessed spent nuclear reactor fuel, and this kind can be distinguished by the presence of another Uranium atom, U-236. If reprocessed Uranium is present in DU, it may be considered much more dangerous to humans, with higher levels of radioactivity present, plus the possible inclusion of other harmful substances, which were produced/used during the original nuclear fission process.

Depleted Uranium In Bombs
http://www.blatantworld.com/feature/the_world/depleted_uranium_stockpiles.html
Depleted Uranium is used by advanced military's due to it's armour piercing qualities, it's cost-effectiveness, and it's availability. The bombs which can be made from this cheap but highly dangerous substance, can get through any type of armour, or structure, and then explode outwards, thus vaporising everything in their wake. This creates the most effective of battlefield missiles, particularly against tanks and armoured vehicles, aswell as for levelling fortified or strong buildings. They have been used extensively in both Gulf War's, and in the former Yugoslavia, by Coalition and NATO forces respectively. For example, according to Time Magazine... "NATO aircraft rained more than 30,000 DU shells on Kosovo during the 11-week air campaign".

In the immediate areas where bombs have been used, there have been huge rises in cancer levels, and in the numbers of newborn children with strange deformities and conditions. Rises in related health issues usually begin to take place a few years after the bombs were let off, and contamination - and the high level of associated health problems - will remain for many generations in the affected areas, possibly even for hundreds of years. Similar levels of rises in similar cancers have been recorded amongst the returning US and UK soldiers which had been handling and firing these bombs during their time in Iraq and Kosovo, as have high levels of abnormalities and deformities in their subsequent newborn children. This collective rise in health conditions amongst ex-soldiers and their families, has been widely termed the 'Gulf War Syndrome'.

Human Health Effects After Exposure To Uranium

For a humans health to be affected by Uranium, it is believed that it must be absorbed through eating, drinking, or breathing it in, or through contact with the skin. The major issue with DU being dropped over Iraq, Afghanistan and the Balkans, is that when these bombs are set off over large population centres, they can contaminate large areas of land and air.

This is a list of health effects which have been associated with exposure to high levels of Uranium. Only those conditions which have been identified by testing on humans are included below, although there has been additional extensive animal testing which has identified other possible side-effects to Uranium exposure.

Effects Found By Testing On Humans [2]



Renal system McDiarmid et al. 2000 Elevated levels of protein excretion, urinary catalase and diuresis
Brain/Central Nervous System McDiarmid et al. 2000 Decreased performance on neurocognitive tests
Bone/muscle No studies done on humans
Reproductive system Muller et al. 1967 Uranium minors have more first born female children
Lungs/respiratory toxicity Polednak et al. 1982 No adverse health effects reported
Gastrointestinal system Stopps & Todd 1982 /
Wrenn et al. 1985
Vomiting, diarrhea, albuminuria
Liver Lu & Zhao 1990 No effects seen at exposure dose
Skin ATSDR 1999 No exposure assessment data available
Tissues
(surrounding
embedded DU fragments)
McDiarmid et al. 2000 Elevated uranium urine concentrations
Immune system Korenyi-Both & Juncer 1997 Chronic fatigue, rash, ear and eye infections, hair and weight loss, cough. May be due to combined chemical exposure rather than DU alone
Eyes No studies done on humans
Blood No studies done on humans
Cardiovascular system Hartmann et al. 2000 /
Lu & Zhao 1990
Myocarditis resulting from the uranium ingestion, which ended 6 months after ingestion (Hartmann), no effects (Lu & Zhao)
DNA Aitken 1999 Increased reports of cancers





Global Issues




Depleted Uranium (DU)
Depleted Uranium is a by-product which is produced when we make fuel for nuclear power reactors, and also when we make nuclear bombs. There is no safe way to dispose of this waste product, so we generally store it underwater or underground in containers. Western forces have also dropped a whole lot of DU over Iraq, Afghanistan and the Balkans
view facts + figures and videos here >




Pollution
We still do not have a clear picture as to how badly we have already polluted the World. With a growing awareness of corporations being much more interested in profit, than in our environment or health, we must get an overall picture, and we must also find a 100% safe way of storing our most harmful types of waste
view facts + figures and videos here >




Nuclear Energy
The latest figures from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) tells us that around 13-14% of the World's energy was produced by nuclear plants during 2009, continuing the slight downward trend on production of nuclear power (as a % of total energy production). In total 28 nations produce nuclear energy, and 16 have plants under construction
view facts + figures and videos here >




Nuclear Weapons
There are currently nine nations which hold operational nuclear warheads (United States, Russia, France, China, United Kingdom, Israel, Pakistan, India, North Korea), and the United States also loans them out to Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Turkey, through a NATO-approved 'Nuclear Sharing' scheme
view facts + figures and videos here >












Related Facts & Figures






Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In The World
Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In Europe
Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In North America
Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In South America
Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In Asia
Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In Africa
Depleted Uranium Stockpiles In Oceania






Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In The World
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In Europe
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In North America
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In South America
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In Asia
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In Africa
Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles In Oceania














WMD & Nuclear Weapons Video

The Doctor, The Depleted Uranium & The Dying Children
- Use of depleted uranium by the west in Iraq & the Balkans (Documentary)
Einstein's Equation of Life and Death (E=mc²)
- His battle to get the atomic bomb developed, and guilt for doing so (Documentary)
Star Wars In Iraq
- Strange injuries point to US forces using laser & microwave weapons in Iraq (Documentary)
Kill The Messenger: Sibel Edmonds
- The illegal nuclear blackmarket, involving US, Turkey, S. Africa, Israel, Pakistan (Documentary)
Colin Powell - United Nations 'WMD' Speech Which Led To Iraq War
- Watch a man's credibility slip away (Speech)
Tedd Weyman - Depleted Uranium Bombs Are Nuclear Weapons
- UMRC Deputy Director explains (Speech)
Dr Doug Rokke on Gulf War Depleted Uranium
- The use of DU as a weapon, and it's contamination prospects (Speech)
Irwin Redlener on How To Survive A Nuclear Attack
- Some of history's farcical countermeasures + practical advice on how to survive attack (Speech)
Depleted Uranium From NATO Bombs Remains Deadly In The Balkans
- Uncovers high rates of cancers & other conditions in Serbia and Kosovo (Video Journalism Movement)












References

[1] "World Depleted Uranium Inventory" WISE Uranium Project - This is the most accurate and up-to-date list out there for depleted Uranium stocks around the World. United States' figures are for mid-2000, Russia's estimate is based on "Depleted Uranium from Enrichment, Uranium Institute, London 1996", China's estimate is for the end of 2000, Japan's estimate is for February 2001, and the rest are based on 1999 year-end estimates. Last updated by WISE Uranium Project on April.21.2008, last retrieved by BlatantWorld.com on January.07.2010
[2] "Depleted & Natural Uranium: Chemistry & Toxicological Effects" - see "Compilation of Current Information Regarding Uranium Toxicity on Various Body Systems", at bottom of page. First published in the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health in 2004.



Depleted Uranium (DU)

Depleted Uranium is a by-product which is produced when we make fuel for nuclear power reactors, and also when we make nuclear bombs. There is no safe way to dispose of this waste product, so we generally store it underwater or underground in containers, which are generally not made to last millions of years, the amount of time DU may take to loose it's radioactivity. Western forces have also dropped a whole lot of DU over Iraq, Afghanistan and the Balkans, in DU bombs, some of which may contain reprocessed spent nuclear reactor fuel, the most dangerous DU to humans.
Global Issue: Depleted Uranium (DU)


Depleted Uranium (DU) is a highly toxic and mildly (although some people say not so mild!) radioactive substance, which is a by-product that is produced when Uranium is being turned into fuel for both nuclear power stations, and for nuclear bombs. Whilst this kind of 'clean' waste uranium is found in high amounts in DU bombs, there is a constant argument over just how much reprocessed spent nuclear reactor fuel is being packed into DU bombs too. And this is a big issue, because if reprocessed uranium is present in DU, it may be considered much more dangerous to humans, with higher levels of radioactivity present, plus the possible inclusion of other harmful substances, which were produced/used during the original nuclear fission process.

There is a long list of health effects, birth defects and cancers which have been associated with exposure to high levels of uranium, including so-called 'Gulf War Syndrome' - DU is thought to be the singular cause of this condition. The most recent known bulk uses of DU internationally, are by Coalition and NATO forces, with DU dropped over places like Iraq, Afghanistan and the Balkans, contaminating the land and population for hundreds, if not millions, of years. If the radioactivity levels are as expected in some DU bombs - high and dangerous to human beings, to other living things and to the environment - then western forces must be stopped from using them immediately. And furthermore, instead of dropping our DU waste over invaded countries, we must find ways to store it safely, or else we must stop producing it. For the sake of our survival, we also need to clean up the nuclear waste which we have dumped underwater and underground.

Get A More Scientific Explanation About Depleted Uranium Production>
Depleted Uranium In Bombs - Whats The Deal?>
Human Health Effects After Exposure To Uranium>

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