Senin, 25 November 2013

DEAL NUKLIR IRAN DENGAN 5+1 DI GENEVA...?? >> KONON SEMUA SETUJU UNTIK PENGAYAAN URANIUM IRAN...DAN MENGHENTIKAN EMBARGO EKONOMI YANG SELAMA INI DILAKUKAN TERHADAP IRAN...??>>> INI SUATU KEMAJUAN DALAM SITUASI EKONOMI DUNIA YANG CARUT MARUT... DIMANA BEBERAPA NEGARA SEDANG DALAM KESULITAN EKONOMI.. TERMASUK EROPA DAN AMERIKA..>> SEMOGA SEMUA MEMBAWA KEPADA KEMAKMURAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI DUNIA YANG SEMAKIN ADIL DAN MERATA...>> KITA BERHARAP PEPERANGAN DIKAWASAN TIMUR TENGAH SEGERA TERHENTI.. DAN KEMERDEKAAN PALESTINA SECARA PENUH SEGERA TERWUJUD...>>> ...... Krisis Suriah, meskipun dalam beberapa tahun terakhir telah menganggu hubungan Tehran-Ankara, tapi sekarang seiring dengan perkembangan situasi yang menguntungkan Assad dan runtuhnya segi tiga anti-Suriah (Turki, Qatar, dan Arab Saudi), Turki tampaknya memulai upaya baru untuk merekonstruksi hubungannya dengan negara-negara tetangga. Davutoglu telah melakukan perjalanan ke Qatar dan Bahrain – sebelum singgah di Iran – untuk membahas isu-isu regional termasuk krisis di Suriah....>>> "Congressional Republicans questioned whether the deal would actually prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon because they will still be able to enrich uranium — something the nation says is needed for power plants. "'This agreement will not 'freeze' Iran's nuclear program and won't require the regime to suspend all enrichment as required by multiple UN Security Council resolutions,' Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) said in a statement. 'By allowing the Iranian regime to retain a sizable nuclear infrastructure, this agreement makes a nuclear Iran more likely. There is now an even more urgent need for Congress to increase sanctions until Iran completely abandons its enrichment and reprocessing capabilities.'"..>>> .. "The discussions were kept hidden even from America's closest friends, including its negotiating partners and Israel, until two months ago, and that may explain how the nuclear accord appeared to come together so quickly after years of stalemate and fierce hostility between Iran and the West. "But the secrecy of the talks may also explain some of the tensions between the U.S. and France, which earlier this month balked at a proposed deal, and with Israel, which is furious about the agreement and has angrily denounced the diplomatic outreach to Tehran. "President Barack Obama personally authorized the talks as part of his effort — promised in his first inaugural address — to reach out to a country the State Department designates as the world's most active state sponsor of terrorism. "The talks were held in the Middle Eastern nation of Oman and elsewhere with only a tight circle of people in the know, the AP learned. Since March, Deputy Secretary of State William Burns and Jake Sullivan, Vice President Joe Biden's top foreign policy adviser, have met at least five times with Iranian officials."..>> .. tim ahli perunding Iran ini terdiri dari kementerian-kementerian bidang ekonomi seperti Kementerian Idustri, Tambang, dan Perdagangan, Kementerian Transportasi dan Pembangunan Kota, Kementerian Perminyakan, Bank Sentral Iran, dan Badan Energi Nuklir Iran....>>> Associated Press mengklaim bahwa Amerika Serikat dan Iran menggelar perundingan rahasia selama tahun lalu yang menjadi pembuka jalan bagi kesepakatan historis yang dicapai antara Tehran dan enam negara di Jenewa. Jumat lalu, Zarif membantah laporan koran Le Figaro terbitan Perancis yang mengklaim bahwa pada 21 November, diplomat Iran dan AS mengadakan perundingan rahasia dalam beberapa pekan terakhir di Afghanistan, Irak dan Suriah serta mendiskusikan mekanisme peningkatan hubungan dagang Tehran-Washington pasca kemungkinan penandatangan kesepakatan antara Iran dan Kelompok 5+1...>> "Ini sebuah kebohongan belaka dan kami tidak berunding dengan AS kecuali pada masalah nuklir," kata Zarif...>> Footnotes 5 "Sanctions on associated services" means any service, such as insurance, transportation, or financial, subject to the underlying U.S. or EU sanctions applicable, insofar as each service is related to the underlying sanction and required to facilitate the desired transactions. These services could involve any non-designated Iranian entities. 6 Sanctions relief could involve any non-designated Iranian airlines as well as Iran Air...>> Elements of the final step of a comprehensive solution* The final step of a comprehensive solution, which the parties aim to conclude negotiating and commence implementing no more than one year after the adoption of this document, would: • Have a specified long-term duration to be agreed upon. • Reflect the rights and obligations of parties to the NPT and IAEA Safeguards Agreements. • Comprehensively lift UN Security Council, multilateral and national nuclear-related sanctions, including steps on access in areas of trade, technology, finance, and energy, on a schedule to be agreed upon. • Involve a mutually defined enrichment programme with mutually agreed parameters consistent with practical needs, with agreed limits on scope and level of enrichment activities, capacity, where it is carried out, and stocks of enriched uranium, for a period to be agreed upon. • Fully resolve concerns related to the reactor at Arak, designated by the IAEA as the IR-40...>> • Fully implement the agreed transparency measures and enhanced monitoring. Ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, consistent with the respective roles of the President and the Majlis (Iranian parliament). • Include international civil nuclear cooperation, including among others, on acquiring modern light water power and research reactors and associated equipment, and the supply of modern nuclear fuel as well as agreed R&D practices....>> ublik Islam. Dalam pidato langsung di televisi negara pada hari Selasa (26/11/13), Rohani mengatakan bahwa hak pengayaan tidak dilarang di bawah hukum internasional dan Tehran tidak akan pernah menghentikan kegiatan itu di dalam negeri. "Pengayaan yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari hak nuklir kita akan terus berlanjut. Pengayaan masih berlanjut hingga hari ini dan akan terus berlanjut di masa mendatang. Pengayaan kita tak akan pernah berhenti dan ini adalah gari merah kita," kata Rohani dalam pidato memperingati hari ke-100 kepemimpinannya sebagai presiden Iran. Mengomentari kesepakatan nuklir baru Iran dengan enam kekuatan dunia, Presiden Iran itu mengatakan bahwa kesepakatan itu menciptakan keretakan dalam sanksi yang diberlakukan terhadap Republik Islam. Rohani menekankan bahwa pemerintahannya berhasil menetralisir beberapa sanksi unilateral dan multilateral terhadap Iran. Presiden Iran itu juga mengatakan, musuh-musuh negara yang mencoba menyebarkan Iranophobia di seluruh dunia saat ini semakin terisolasi...>>> ..."Baik sanksi atau ancaman tak memiliki dampak pada kehendak bangsa Iran. Barat tak punya pilihan dan terpaksa melakukan negosiasi untuk memecahkan masalah diciptakannya sendiri," kata Shamkhani dalam pertemuan dengan Ketua Parlemen Libanon, Nabih Berri di Tehran pada hari Selasa...>>>


Wary-of-war Americans back Iran nuclear deal: Poll
 http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/11/27/336923/americans-back-iran-nuclear-deal-poll/
 
EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton, third from left, delivers a statement during a ceremony marking the deal between Iran and six world powers in Geneva, Switzerland, on November 24, 2013.
 
EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton, third from left, delivers a statement during a ceremony marking the deal between Iran and six world powers in Geneva, Switzerland, on November 24, 2013.
Wed Nov 27, 2013 9:3AM GMT
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Related Viewpoints:
The result of a new poll shows that Americans support a recently brokered nuclear deal between Iran and six world powers and oppose a military action against Tehran even if the interim deal falls through.


Iran and the five permanent members of the UN Security Council - Britain, China, France, Russia and the US - plus Germany clinched an interim deal on November 24 to pave the way for the full resolution of the West’s decade-old dispute with Iran over the country’s nuclear energy program.

In exchange for Iran agreeing to limit certain aspects of its nuclear activities, the United States and its allies have undertaken to lift some of the existing sanctions against Iran.

A Reuters-Ipsos poll released on Tuesday showed that 44 percent of Americans backed the nuclear deal, while only 22 percent were against it.

According to the poll, 49 percent want the United States to increase sanctions against Iran in case the Geneva deal fails and 31 percent believe Washington should exercise further diplomacy with Tehran.

The Survey was conducted online from November 24-26 with 591 respondents.

Only 20 percent favored US military action to be used against Tehran.

Ipsos pollster Julia Clark said “This absolutely speaks to war fatigue, where the American appetite for intervention - anywhere - is extremely low.”

According to Clark, the findings suggest that a US public weary of war could help bolster US President Barack Obama’s push to keep Congress from approving new sanctions against Iran that could jeopardize the ongoing diplomatic efforts.

“It could provide some support with Congress for the arguments being made by the administration,” said Clark.

A number of US lawmakers in both chambers had expressed skepticism about the interim agreement, with US Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid saying the Senate might pursue stronger sanctions against Iran despite the nuclear deal.

However, on Tuesday, US President Barack Obama strongly defended the nuclear agreement with Iran, pushing back against the criticism from Israel and Congress.

YH/NN/HRB


Sanksi Iran

http://www.islamtimes.org/vdci5waprt1aru2.k8ct.html

Iran Tak Terpengaruh oleh Sanksi dan Ancaman
Islam Times - "Baik sanksi atau ancaman tak memiliki dampak pada kehendak bangsa Iran. Barat tak punya pilihan dan terpaksa melakukan negosiasi untuk memecahkan masalah diciptakannya sendiri," kata Shamkhani dalam pertemuan dengan Ketua Parlemen Libanon, Nabih Berri di Tehran pada hari Selasa (26/11/13).
Ali Shamkhani dan Nabih Berri di Tehran 26 November 2013.jpg
Ali Shamkhani dan Nabih Berri di Tehran 26 November 2013.jpg

Sekretaris Dewan Keamanan Nasional Tertinggi Iran (SNSC), Ali Shamkhani mengatakan ancaman dan sanksi Barat terhadap Iran terkait program energi nuklirnya gagal mempengaruhi kehendak bangsa untuk terus berjalan.

"Baik sanksi atau ancaman tak memiliki dampak pada kehendak bangsa Iran. Barat tak punya pilihan dan terpaksa melakukan negosiasi untuk memecahkan masalah diciptakannya sendiri," kata Shamkhani dalam pertemuan dengan Ketua Parlemen Libanon, Nabih Berri di Tehran pada hari Selasa (26/11/13).

Samkhani menambahkan, rezim Israel murka karena kesepakatan nuklir interim antara Iran dan lima anggota tetap Dewan Keamanan PBB plus Jerman telah tercapai.

Shamkhani lebih lanjut mengatakan pemboman kembar baru-baru ini di luar Kedutaan Besar Iran di Beirut menegaskan betapa pentingnya interaksi antara negara-negara regional untuk memerangi terorisme dan ekstremisme.

"Negara-negara regional tak akan membiarkan negara-negara tertentu menargetkan keamanan regional dengan cara terorisme dan meicu perselisihan agama serta sektarianisme," tambah Shamkhani.

Samkhani mendesak negara-negara bebas dan merdeka untuk memperkuat persatuan dan kerja sama dalam perkembangan internasional.

"Iran akan melanjutkan kebijakan dan pendekatan untuk mendukung pertahanan [anti -Israel], menciptakan perdamaian dan ketenangan di wilayah dan memperluas hubungan persahabatan dengan tetangga," tambah pejabat senior keamanan Iran itu.

Ketua Parlemen Libanon itu juga mengatakan bahwa kesepakatan nuklir terakhir antara Iran dan enam kekuatan dunia akan bermanfaat bagi perdamaian dan keamanan regional-internasional.

Berri menyeru Iran untuk terus berperan aktif dan efektif dalam menyelesaikan masalah-masalah regional.

Memimpin delegasi tingkat tinggi, Nabih Berri tiba di Tehran pada hari Minggu (24/11/13) dalam kunjungan resmi empat hari untuk mengadakan pembicaraan dengan para pejabat senior Iran. [IT/r]

Sejumlah Media Klaim Iran dan AS Berunding Sebelum Perundingan Jenewa


Sebuah sumber yang dekat dengan Kementerian Luar Negeri Iran membantah laporan media AS tentang perundingan rahasia Tehran-Washington menjelang kesepakatan antara Iran dan Kelompok 5+1.

Setelah lebih dari empat hari berunding secara intensif, Iran dan lima anggota tetap Dewan Keamanan PBB - AS, Inggris, Rusia, Perancis dan Cina – ditambah Jerman, menandatangani kesepakatan interim di Jenewa pada hari Ahad (24/11).



"Seperti yang telah dikatakan Menteri Luar Negeri Iran Mohammad Javad Zarif, tidak ada perundingan [khusus] antara Iran dan Amerika Serikat, kecuali pada isu-isu nuklir dan dalam kerangka perundingan dengan Kelompok 5+1," sebut sumber itu.

Sumber yang berbicara secara anonim itu menambahkan bahwa spekulasi media yang patut "dipertanyakan" itu bertujuan menciptakan ketidakjelasan terkait pendekatan Iran dalam masalah nuklir "yang sudah jelas dan transparan".

"Media perlu mempertimbangkan konsekuensi dari liputan berita yang tidak benar dan ambigu yang akan mempengaruhi suasana positif pasca perundingan Jenewa dan kesepakatan antara kedua belah pihak," katanya.

Associated Press mengklaim bahwa Amerika Serikat dan Iran menggelar perundingan rahasia selama tahun lalu yang menjadi pembuka jalan bagi kesepakatan historis yang dicapai antara Tehran dan enam negara di Jenewa.
 
Jumat lalu, Zarif membantah laporan koran Le Figaro terbitan Perancis yang mengklaim bahwa pada 21 November, diplomat Iran dan AS mengadakan perundingan rahasia dalam beberapa pekan terakhir di Afghanistan, Irak dan Suriah serta mendiskusikan mekanisme peningkatan hubungan dagang Tehran-Washington pasca kemungkinan penandatangan kesepakatan antara Iran dan Kelompok 5+1.
 
"Ini sebuah kebohongan belaka dan kami tidak berunding dengan AS kecuali pada masalah nuklir," kata Zarif.
(IRIB Indonesia/MZ)
Hasil Perundingan Baidinejad dengan 5+1
SHABESTAN — 
Hamid Baidinejad adalah ahli embargo dan kepala tim ahli Republik Islam Iran dalam berunding dengan tim ahli dari pihak 5+1 guna menghapus embargo-embargo yang telah disahkan atas Iran.

















Baidinejad adalah kepala urusan ekonomi dan internasional di Kemenlu Iran. Ia sudah berkhidmat selama bertahun-tahun dalam posisi ini. Sekarang ia harus membuktikan kelihaiannya dalam berunding dengan Barat dalam masalah ekonomi dan penghapusan seluruh embargo ekonomi atas Iran.

Sebagaimana pernah diberitakan sebelum ini, tim ahli perunding Iran ini terdiri dari kementerian-kementerian bidang ekonomi seperti Kementerian Idustri, Tambang, dan Perdagangan, Kementerian Transportasi dan Pembangunan Kota, Kementerian Perminyakan, Bank Sentral Iran, dan Badan Energi Nuklir Iran.

Perundingan di tingkat ahli kali ini digelar lantaran kesepatan tim perunding politik Iran dan 5+1 pada perundingan Jenewa lalu.

Dalam perundingan ini, tim ahli Iran telah mengajukan berbagai usulan dalam rangka menghapus embargo kepada 5+1. Usulan Iran ini akan diajukan kepada para petinggi 5+1 (Amerika, China, Rusia, Prancis, dan Inggris + Jerman). Dalam rangka mengambil keputusan, mereka akan mengadakan perundingan lagi dengan Iran di Jenewa, Swiss minggu depan.

Program Nuklir Damai Iran

AS Ubah Teks Kesepakatan Perjanjian Jenewa
Islam Times- "Apa yang tersebar di situs Gedung Putih tidak lebih dari penafsiran sepihak terkait Perjanjian Jenewa, sebagian diksi dan keterangan di lembar teks itu bertentangan dengan teks rencana bersama yang telah disepakati di Jenewa," terang Marziyeh Afkham Selasa, 26/11/13.
Marziyeh Afkham
Marziyeh Afkham
http://www.islamtimes.org/vdcjhxetvuqe8oz.bnfu.html

Kementerian Luar Negeri Iran pada Selasa, 26/11/13, menyebut siaran pers Gedung Putih terkait dengan salinan teks perjanjian nuklir yang disepakati di Jenewa pada Ahad beberapa hari lalu tidak valid dan banyak perubahan sesuai dengan tafsiran Gedung Putih.

"Apa yang tersebar di situs Gedung Putih tidak lebih dari penafsiran sepihak terkait Perjanjian Jenewa, sebagian diksi dan keterangan di lembar teks itu bertentangan dengan teks rencana bersama yang telah disepakati di Jenewa," terang Marziyeh Afkham Selasa, 26/11/13.

"Beberapa media menyebut teks itu sebagai teks Perjanjian Jenewa yang tentu saja bertentangan dengan yang sebenarnya, "tandasnya lagi.

Terkait teks fakta yang disebarkan oleh pihak pemerintah AS dan diterbitkan oleh beberapa media setempat dan dianggap sebagai teks pakta yang disepakati pada perundingan di Jenewa, Afkham menjelaskan, "Tiga putaran perundingan intensif Republik Islam Iran dengan 5+1 di Jenewa dan berjam-jam perundingan para ahli seputar masalah yang sama pada akhirnya melahirkan program bersama antara Iran dan 5+1. Dan satu jam setelah akhir perundingan (24/11/2013) teks perjanjian itu disepakati dan dipublikasikan.

"Teks empat halaman berupa program bersama itu merupakan hasil berbagai kesepakatan dalam Perundingan Jenewa, tiap-tiap kalimat dan diksinya telah disusun berdasarkan pernyataan semua pihak dalam perundingan, dan salah satu faktor lamanya perundingan adalah ketelitian dalam memilih diksi teks perjanjian itu, khususnya ketelitian yang ditunjukkan oleh tim perundingan Republik Islam Iran, tegasnya lagi.


"Apa yang tersebar sebagai teks di situs Gedung Putih tidak lebih dari penafsiran sepihak dari Perjanjian Jenewa, sebagian diksi dan keterangan di lembar itu bertentangan dengan teks rencana awal bersama yang telah disepakati di Jenewa." jelas juru bicara departemen luar negeri Iran, Marziyeh Afkham. [IT/onh/Ass]

Berikut teks asli berbahasa Inggris:

Geneva, 24 November 2013

Joint Plan of Action

Preamble

The goal for these negotiations is to reach a mutually-agreed long-term comprehensive solution that would ensure Iran's nuclear programme will be exclusively peaceful. Iran reaffirms that under no circumstances will Iran ever seek or develop any nuclear weapons. This comprehensive solution would build on these initial measures and result in a final step for a period to be agreed upon and the resolution of concerns. This comprehensive solution would enable Iran to fully enjoy its right to nuclear energy for peaceful purposes under the relevant articles of the NPT in conformity with its obligations therein. This comprehensive solution would involve a mutually defined enrichment programme with practical limits and transparency measures to ensure the peaceful nature of the programme. This comprehensive solution would constitute an integrated whole where nothing is agreed until everything is agreed. This comprehensive solution would involve a reciprocal, step-bystep process, and would produce the comprehensive lifting of all UN Security Council sanctions, as well as multilateral and national sanctions related to Iran's nuclear programme.

There would be additional steps in between the initial measures and the final step, including, among other things, addressing the UN Security Council resolutions, with a view toward bringing to a satisfactory conclusion the UN Security Council's consideration of this matter. The E3+3 and Iran will be responsible for conclusion and implementation of mutual near-term measures and the comprehensive solution in good faith. A Joint Commission of E3/EU+3 and Iran will be established to monitor the implementation of the near-term measures and address issues that may arise, with the IAEA responsible for verification of nuclear-related measures. The Joint Commission will work with the IAEA to facilitate resolution of past and present issues of concern.

Elements of a first step The first step would be time-bound, with a duration of 6 months, and renewable by mutual consent, during which all parties will work to maintain a constructive atmosphere for negotiations in good faith. Iran would undertake the following voluntary measures:


From the existing uranium enriched to 20%, retain half as working stock of 20% oxide for fabrication of fuel for the TRR. Dilute the remaining 20% UF6 to no more than 5%. No reconversion line.

Iran announces that it will not enrich uranium over 5% for the duration of the 6 months.

Iran announces that it will not make any further advances of its activities at the Natanz Fuel Enrichment Plant1, Fordow2, or the Arak reactor3, designated by the IAEA as IR-40.

Beginning when the line for conversion of UF6 enriched up to 5% to UO2 is ready, Iran has decided to convert to oxide UF6 newly enriched up to 5% during the 6 month period, as provided in the operational schedule of the conversion plant declared to the IAEA.

No new locations for the enrichment.

Iran will continue its safeguarded R&D practices, including its current enrichment R&D practices, which are not designed for accumulation of the enriched uranium.
No reprocessing or construction of a facility capable of reprocessing.

Enhanced monitoring:

o Provision of specified information to the IAEA, including information on Iran's plans for nuclear facilities, a description of each building on each nuclear site, a description of the scale of operations for each location engaged in specified nuclear activities, information on uranium mines and mills, and information on source material. This information would be provided within three months of the adoption of these measures.

o Submission of an updated DIQ for the reactor at Arak, designated by the IAEA as the IR-40, to the IAEA.

o Steps to agree with the IAEA on conclusion of the Safeguards Approach for the reactor at Arak, designated by the IAEA as the IR-40.

o Daily IAEA inspector access when inspectors are not present for the purpose of Design Information Verification, Interim Inventory Verification, Physical Inventory Verification, and unannounced inspections, for the purpose of access to offline surveillance records, at Fordow and Natanz.

o IAEA inspector managed access to:

centrifuge assembly workshops4;

centrifuge rotor production workshops and storage facilities; and, uranium mines and mills.



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes:

1 Namely, during the 6 months, Iran will not feed UF6 into the centrifuges installed but not enriching uranium. Not install additional centrifuges. Iran announces that during the first 6 months, it will replace existing centrifuges with centrifuges of the same type.

2 At Fordow, no further enrichment over 5% at 4 cascades now enriching uranium, and not increase enrichment capacity. Not

feed UF6 into the other 12 cascades, which would remain in a non-operative state. No interconnections between cascades.

Iran announces that during the first 6 months, it will replace existing centrifuges with centrifuges of the same type.

3 Iran announces on concerns related to the construction of the reactor at Arak that for 6 months it will not commission the reactor or transfer fuel or heavy water to the reactor site and will not test additional fuel or produce more fuel for the reactor or install remaining components.

4 Consistent with its plans, Iran's centrifuge production during the 6 months will be dedicated to replace damaged machines.

In return, the E3/EU+3 would undertake the following voluntary measures:

• Pause efforts to further reduce Iran's crude oil sales, enabling Iran's current customers to purchase their current average amounts of crude oil. Enable the repatriation of an agreed amount of revenue held abroad. For such oil sales, suspend the EU and U.S. sanctions on associated insurance and transportation services.

• Suspend U.S. and EU sanctions on:

o Iran's petrochemical exports, as well as sanctions on associated services.5 o Gold and precious metals, as well as sanctions on associated services.

• Suspend U.S. sanctions on Iran's auto industry, as well as sanctions on associated services.

• License the supply and installation in Iran of spare parts for safety of flight for Iranian civil aviation and associated services. License safety related inspections and repairs in Iran as well as associated services.6

• No new nuclear-related UN Security Council sanctions.

• No new EU nuclear-related sanctions.

• The U.S. Administration, acting consistent with the respective roles of the President and the

Congress, will refrain from imposing new nuclear-related sanctions.

• Establish a financial channel to facilitate humanitarian trade for Iran's domestic needs using Iranian oil revenues held abroad. Humanitarian trade would be defined as transactions involving food and agricultural products, medicine, medical devices, and medical expenses incurred abroad. This channel would involve specified foreign banks and non-designated Iranian banks to be defined when establishing the channel.

o This channel could also enable:

transactions required to pay Iran's UN obligations; and, direct tuition payments to universities and colleges for Iranian students studying abroad, up to an agreed amount for the six month period.

• Increase the EU authorisation thresholds for transactions for non-sanctioned trade to an agreed amount.


------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Footnotes

5 "Sanctions on associated services" means any service, such as insurance, transportation, or financial, subject to the underlying U.S. or EU sanctions applicable, insofar as each service is related to the underlying sanction and required to facilitate the desired transactions. These services could involve any non-designated Iranian entities.

6 Sanctions relief could involve any non-designated Iranian airlines as well as Iran Air.


Elements of the final step of a comprehensive solution*

The final step of a comprehensive solution, which the parties aim to conclude negotiating and commence implementing no more than one year after the adoption of this document, would:

• Have a specified long-term duration to be agreed upon.

• Reflect the rights and obligations of parties to the NPT and IAEA Safeguards Agreements.

• Comprehensively lift UN Security Council, multilateral and national nuclear-related sanctions, including steps on access in areas of trade, technology, finance, and energy, on a schedule to be agreed upon.

• Involve a mutually defined enrichment programme with mutually agreed parameters consistent with practical needs, with agreed limits on scope and level of enrichment activities, capacity, where it is carried out, and stocks of enriched uranium, for a period to be agreed upon.

• Fully resolve concerns related to the reactor at Arak, designated by the IAEA as the IR-40.

No reprocessing or construction of a facility capable of reprocessing.

• Fully implement the agreed transparency measures and enhanced monitoring. Ratify and implement the Additional Protocol, consistent with the respective roles of the President and the Majlis (Iranian parliament).

• Include international civil nuclear cooperation, including among others, on acquiring modern light water power and research reactors and associated equipment, and the supply of modern nuclear fuel as well as agreed R&D practices.

Following successful implementation of the final step of the comprehensive solution for its full duration, the Iranian nuclear programme will be treated in the same manner as that of any non-nuclear weapon state party to the NPT.

* With respect to the final step and any steps in between, the standard principle that "nothing is agreed until everything is agreed" applies.
[]
Rohani: Iran Tidak Akan Hentikan Pengayaan Uranium
Islam Times - "Banyak yang berusaha mengisolasi Iran tapi siapa yang terisolasi hari ini? Musuh kitalah yang sebenarnya terisolasi," tambah Rohani.
Hassan Rohani, Presiden Iran
Hassan Rohani, Presiden Iran
http://www.islamtimes.org/vdcaymney49nuw1.h8k4.html

Presiden Iran Hasan Rohani mengatakan Traktat Non - Proliferasi Nuklir (NPT) telah memberi hak pada Iran untuk melanjutkan pengayaan uranium yang merupakan garis merah Republik Islam.

Dalam pidato langsung di televisi negara pada hari Selasa (26/11/13), Rohani mengatakan bahwa hak pengayaan tidak dilarang di bawah hukum internasional dan Tehran tidak akan pernah menghentikan kegiatan itu di dalam negeri.

"Pengayaan yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari hak nuklir kita akan terus berlanjut. Pengayaan masih berlanjut hingga hari ini dan akan terus berlanjut di masa mendatang. Pengayaan kita tak akan pernah berhenti dan ini adalah gari merah kita," kata Rohani dalam pidato memperingati hari ke-100 kepemimpinannya sebagai presiden Iran.

Mengomentari kesepakatan nuklir baru Iran dengan enam kekuatan dunia, Presiden Iran itu mengatakan bahwa kesepakatan itu  menciptakan keretakan dalam sanksi yang diberlakukan terhadap Republik Islam.

Rohani menekankan bahwa pemerintahannya berhasil menetralisir beberapa sanksi unilateral dan multilateral terhadap Iran.

Presiden Iran itu  juga mengatakan, musuh-musuh negara yang mencoba menyebarkan Iranophobia di seluruh dunia saat ini semakin terisolasi.


"Banyak yang berusaha mengisolasi Iran tapi siapa yang terisolasi hari ini? Musuh kitalah yang sebenarnya terisolasi," tambah Rohani.

Iran dan lima anggota tetap Dewan Keamanan PBB plus Jerman telah menyetujui kesepakatan interim di Jenewa pada hari Minggu pagi (23/11/13) untuk membuka jalan bagi resolusi penuh dalam sengketa program energi nuklir Iran.

Dalam kesepakatan Jenewa itu, sanksi Uni Eropa dan AS terhadap ekspor petrokimia, emas dan logam mulia dan industri otomotif Iran serta pasokan suku cadang untuk pesawat Iran akan ditangguhkan.

Selain itu, tak akan ada sanksi baru yang dijatuhkan terhadap Iran oleh Dewan Keamanan PBB, Uni Eropa atau Amerika Serikat.

Sebagai imbalannya, Iran harus melakukan langkah-langkah tertentu termasuk membatasi pengayaan uranium sampai 5 % selama enam bulan. Tehran juga tak akan meningkatkan kegiatan di fasilitas Natanz, Fordow dan Arak serta mengizinkan inspeksi ke fasilitas nuklirnya sambil terus meningkatkan kerja sama dengan Badan Energi Atom Internasional sebagai bagian dari tindakan membangun kepercayaan .[IT/r]

 

The Iran Nuclear Deal Explained


Nov. 24, 2013, 10:05 AM. http://www.businessinsider.com/the-iran-nuclear-deal-explained-2013-11

Kerry Iran Nuclear Deal
REUTERS/Carolyn Kaster/Pool
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry gestures as he speaks to the media about the deal that has been reached between six world powers and Iran at the International Conference


Read more: http://www.businessinsider.com/the-iran-nuclear-deal-explained-2013-11#ixzz2leFak9J0
 

What nuclear technology does Iran have?


Iran has an almost complete nuclear fuel cycle – the infrastructure to manage the entire process from digging the uranium out of the ground to generating power with it. That includes uranium mines and processing plants to refine the ore into yellowcake. In Isfahan it has a uranium conversion facility that turns the yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride, a gas that can be enriched with the use of centrifuges. It has about 16,000 centrifuges in a big enrichment plant in Natanz and an underground facility at Fordow, and they produce both low-enriched uranium (LEU) and 20%-enriched uranium. The enriched uranium is taken to a fuel fabrication plant in Isfahan to be turned into oxide pellets, which are put in metal tubes to make fuel rods.

Iran has two reactors: a nuclear power station in Bushehr on the Gulf coast that was built with Russian help and uses Russian-supplied fuel rods; and a research reactor in Tehran that uses 20%-enriched uranium fuel and produces isotopes for medical, agricultural and other scientific uses. Iran has built a plant to make heavy water (deuterium oxide) in Arak and is building a reactor there that would use natural uranium fuel in the heavy water for its fissile reaction.

It does not have a reprocessing plant, the last link in the fuel cycle, which would extract plutonium from the spent fuel from the Arak reactor. That is important as plutonium is an efficient fuel for making a warhead.

How does the Geneva deal restrict it?


The deal would stop Iran making any uranium enriched to above 5% purity. It would dilute its roughly 200kg stockpile of 20%-enriched uranium, the most immediate proliferation concern, or convert it to oxide which is harder to turn back into the hexafluoride gas, which can in turn be enriched further to make weapons-grade fuel. Iran undertakes not to build a plant for re-converting uranium oxide back to uranium hexafluoride.


It would also not be allowed to increase its stockpile of 3.5%-enriched uranium, so any that is produced during the six months of the interim agreement would have to be blended down or converted to oxide.


Iran would also have to freeze its enrichment capacity. It would not be allowed to install any new centrifuges and would be able to use only the roughly 8,000 which are currently being used for enrichment. The other 8,000 that have been installed but are not being fed with uranium hexafluoride would have to be "left inoperable".


Major development work at the Arak heavy water reactor would be suspended for six months. No fuel could be put into the reactor and it could not be turned on. Furthermore, no more fuel rods can be made for the reactor and no major reactor components could be introduced.

What is the significance of enrichment levels?


The percentage enrichment refers to the concentration of the fissile isotope U235 in uranium. Low enriched uranium (LEU) is defined as under 5%. Highly enriched (HEU) or weapons-grade plutonium is considered to be over 90%-enriched. Because of the technical aspects of centrifuge enrichment, the manufacture of 20%-enriched uranium is considered to be nine-tenths the way along the road to HEU in terms of difficulty.

Does the deal recognise Iran's right to enrichment?


This is hotly contested. The US says it does not. But the text does suggest that the comprehensive settlement to be hammered out in the next six months would involve at least acceptance. It says: "This comprehensive solution would involve a mutually defined enrichment programme with practical limits and transparency measures to ensure the peaceful nature of the programme." Washington put emphasis on the "mutually defined" phrase, suggesting Iran would require negotiated consent.

Why did Iran build an enrichment plant underground?


The plant carved into the rock under a mountain at Fordow was discovered by western intelligence in 2009. Iran reported its existence to the International Atomic Energy Agency just days before Barack Obama revealed it at the UN general assembly in September of that year. Western states said Fordow demonstrated Iran's desire to cheat and develop a covert weapons programme. Iran said that it needed a protected facility because of the threats from the west and Israel to bomb the Iranian nuclear programme. The Iranian government said it was only required to declare its existence to the IAEA six months before it intended to put radioactive material in it. However, the IAEA argues that is an old rule. It says Iran should inform the agency of new nuclear facilities as soon as they are designed.

Could Iran still develop a nuclear bomb under these conditions?


It would be hard to develop a bomb in secret, particularly because the deal involves some uniquely intrusive inspections, including daily visits to the enrichment plants at Natanz and Fordow, and for the first time inspections of centrifuge assembly workshops and rotor production facilities. Those inspections are especially important as IAEA experts would be able to check if any extra centrifuges were being made for an undeclared plant. Because the nuclear fuel cycle is checked by the IAEA all the way along, any yellowcake or uranium hexafluoride that was diverted to a parallel programme would be noticed. To escape detection, the Iranians would have to construct an entire covert fuel cycle – which would be very difficult The chances of being caught and the penalties involved would be great.


The other way to way make a bomb would be to "break out" – to race to build a warhead before inspectors find out and raise the alarm. But by taking away the 20% stockpile and curbing the number of centrifuges, this deal would double the break-out period Iran would need. It would take about three months to make enough HEU for a warhead, but it would take more than that to turn that HEU into uranium metal and shape it into a perfect core for a warhead and then assemble the weapon, let alone test it. Iran would almost certainly be caught before it had made a single weapon.

What is likely to happen now?


Worst case scenario: The deal falls apart almost immediately in the face of hardliners in Washington and Tehran. A congressional vote now for more sanctions, for example, would almost certainly derail it. Iranian conservatives would see such an act as American perfidy and it would make it extremely hard ever to seal another agreement. Iranian conservatives would be likely instead to accelerate Iranian nuclear development, bringing a conflict closer.


Best case scenario: The interim deal holds and the comprehensive settlement is negotiated on time, laying to rest the Iranian nuclear crisis once and for all. The prompt lifting sanctions leads to an economic boom in Iran, strengthening moderates. The end of isolation would strengthen liberals and weaken the hold of the clerical and military elite.


Most likely scenario: The interim deal more or less holds despite squabbles, but negotiations over the comprehensive agreement are dogged by disagreements and delays, requiring an extension to the stopgap measures and an erosion of trust. Success would require another vast investment of effort and political capital from relatively weak presidents, and would be hostage to developments elsewhere, such as Syria.

This article originally appeared on guardian.co.uk

What You Should Know About The Iran Nuclear Deal

(This post was last updated at 4:40 p.m. ET.)
Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius react during a statement early Sunday in Geneva.
Iranian Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius react during a statement early Sunday in Geneva.

Fabrice Coffrini /AFP/Getty Images
Just before the sun rose on Geneva on Sunday, international negotiators emerged to announce Iran and world powers while the two sides work out a permanent, more sweeping solution.
Today, the deal is being called historic. it may be President Obama's most unlikely and most meaningful foreign policy victory during his time in office.
In short, it is the first time in about a decade that Iran has agreed to halt some of its nuclear activities. Also, this is the most tangible outcome of a newly thawed relationship between the U.S. and Iran. Remember, the two countries have had no formal ties since the 1979 Iranian Revolution. That all changed when Obama and Iran's new, moderate president, Hassan Rouhani,
Later that month, after Rouhani set a new tone during his first visit to the United Nations, the two leaders . After marathon negotiating sessions, which included two trips to Geneva by Secretary of State John Kerry, Iran reached a deal with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (U.S., Russia, China, U.K., France) plus Germany.
During a rare Saturday night address, Obama told the country that while this is "just a first step, it achieves a great deal."
"Today, that diplomacy opened up a new path toward a world that is more secure — a future in which we can verify that Iran's nuclear program is peaceful and that it cannot build a nuclear weapon," Obama said.
Perhaps the most succinct analysis of the deal was tweeted by Ali Vaez, a senior Iran analyst for International Crisis Group, which describes itself as an "independent, non-partisan, source of analysis and advice to governments, and intergovernmental bodies."
: "Like hurdling track and field, springing over the first obstacle does not guarantee victory. But without it the race is lost."

With that, here is what you should know about this deal with Iran:
The Fine Print: As the White House explained the deal in a "fact sheet," Iran has agreed to halt any enrichment above 5 percent and neutralize any of its stockpile that is near-20 percent.
Iran has also agreed to "unprecedented transparency and intrusive monitoring" of its nuclear program.
In return, the U.S. and its partners have agreed to drop some of its sanctions, amounting to about $6 to $7 billion in relief.

— On Some Enrichment, They've Agreed To Disagree: One of the toughest diplomatic dances that happened in this agreement is about Iran's "right to enrich." Iran has insisted that the world recognize it has a right to enrich uranium for peaceful means. The U.S. has insisted that it has never recognized that right for other countries and it would not do so for Iran.

, the two sides have agreed to let ambiguity rule in this case.

"American officials signaled last week that they were open to a compromise in which the two sides would essentially agree to disagree on how the proliferation treaty should be interpreted, while Tehran continued to enrich," the Times adds.

That is: Iran will claim the world has acknowledged its right to enrich; the U.S. will say it has not.

Israel Is Not Happy: "What was concluded in Geneva last night is not a historic agreement, it's a historic mistake," . "It's not made the world a safer place. Like the agreement with , this agreement has made the world a much more dangerous place."
Netanyahu especially objected to the lifting of any sanctions.
"Without continued pressure, what incentive does the Iranian regime have to take serious steps that actually dismantle its nuclear weapons capability?" Netanyahu said.
Obama addressed some of these concerns last night, saying if Iran does not meet its obligations, the sanctions can be rolled out again.
"The broader architecture of sanctions will remain in place and we will continue to enforce them vigorously," Obama said. "And if Iran does not fully meet its commitments during this six-month phase, we will turn off the relief and ratchet up the pressure."
Obama and Netanyahu spoke by telephone in the afternoon.
"The two leaders reaffirmed their shared goal of preventing Iran from obtaining a nuclear weapon," White House said in a readout of the call. "Consistent with our commitment to consult closely with our Israeli friends, the President told the Prime Minister that he wants the United States and Israel to begin consultations immediately regarding our efforts to negotiate a comprehensive solution."

— The GOP Isn't Happy: that shortly after negotiators in Geneva announced they had reached a deal, Congressional Republicans began panning it.
Politico reports:
"Congressional Republicans questioned whether the deal would actually prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon because they will still be able to enrich uranium — something the nation says is needed for power plants.
"'This agreement will not 'freeze' Iran's nuclear program and won't require the regime to suspend all enrichment as required by multiple UN Security Council resolutions,' Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) said in a statement. 'By allowing the Iranian regime to retain a sizable nuclear infrastructure, this agreement makes a nuclear Iran more likely. There is now an even more urgent need for Congress to increase sanctions until Iran completely abandons its enrichment and reprocessing capabilities.'"
During his speech last night, Obama warned lawmakers not to scuttle this deal by imposing new sanctions on Iran.

"Doing so would derail this promising first step, alienate us from our allies and risk unraveling the coalition that enabled our sanctions to be enforced in the first place," Obama said.

Eyes Wide Open: Reacting to criticism from the GOP and Israel, Secretary of State John Kerry told CNN that they were going into this deal with "eyes wide open."
This deal is not about trust, he said. This a deal contingent on intrusive, on-the-ground inspections.
"We're going to verify and verify and verify and verify," Kerry said.

Plus, Kerry said, Iran has committed to neutralizing its higher-enriched uranium. So, under this plan, the country will go from having about 407 pounds of 20 percent-enriched uranium to zero.
That, Kerry said, will extend the amount of time needed for Iran to build a nuclear weapon and consequently make Israel and Gulf countries like Saudi Arabia safer.
"The clock is set backwards," Kerry said.

Iran's Currency Jumped 3 Percent: The sanctions imposed by the U.S. and its allies against Iran have been crippling. Iran's currency, the rial, lost about two-thirds of its value against the dollar because of the sanctions.
that after the deal was announced, the currency gained a bit of traction, rising 3 percent against the dollar on Sunday.

— Iranophobia Lost, Says Rouhani: During a press briefing in Tehran on Sunday, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said that these negotiations mean that "enemy" attempts to "promote Iranophobia" failed.
"The result of the negotiations is that the G5+1 or, in other words, the world powers have now recognized Iran's nuclear rights," Rouhani said, . "During the talks, the world came to understand that respecting the Iranian nation would bear results, and sanctions would not work."

Deal Reached Through Secret Talks? Quoting "three senior administration officials," that this deal was built on a year's worth of secret "high-level, face-to-face talks."
The AP adds:
"The discussions were kept hidden even from America's closest friends, including its negotiating partners and Israel, until two months ago, and that may explain how the nuclear accord appeared to come together so quickly after years of stalemate and fierce hostility between Iran and the West.

"But the secrecy of the talks may also explain some of the tensions between the U.S. and France, which earlier this month balked at a proposed deal, and with Israel, which is furious about the agreement and has angrily denounced the diplomatic outreach to Tehran.

"President Barack Obama personally authorized the talks as part of his effort — promised in his first inaugural address — to reach out to a country the State Department designates as the world's most active state sponsor of terrorism.

"The talks were held in the Middle Eastern nation of Oman and elsewhere with only a tight circle of people in the know, the AP learned. Since March, Deputy Secretary of State William Burns and Jake Sullivan, Vice President Joe Biden's top foreign policy adviser, have met at least five times with Iranian officials."
So What's Next? NPR's Peter Kenyon, who has been covering these negotiations in Geneva, tells Weekend Edition Sunday that what this preliminary deal has told us is that future negotiations will be very difficult.

For example, Peter says, a grand deal would require the big sanctions on Iranian oil to be dropped. Those were passed by Congress and have to be dropped by Congress. If recent history is any indicator, getting anything through Congress will prove challenging.

On the positive side, Peter points out, Ayatollah Khamenei, Iran's supreme leader, His buy-in was essential for any of this to have legs going into broader negotiations.



Upaya Turki Merekonstruksi Hubungan dengan Iran


Menteri Luar Negeri Turki Ahmet Davutoglu pada hari Senin (25/11) memulai kunjungan tiga hari ke Iran untuk mengadakan pembicaraan dengan para pejabat Tehran terkait isu-isu kepentingan bersama dan berpartisipasi dalam Sidang Dewan Menlu Organisasi Kerjasama Ekonomi (ECO) di Tehran.

Kunjungan itu juga untuk membalas lawatan mitranya dari Iran Mohammad Javad Zarif ke Ankara pada awal November lalu. Perang sipil di Suriah dan pertumbuhan konflik sektarian di Timur Tengah diperkirakan akan menjadi agenda utama kunjungan Davutoglu.

Pembicaraan Zarif dan Davutoglu di sela-sela sidang Majelis Umum PBB pada September lalu, dipandang sebagai babak baru hubungan Iran dan Turki, selaku dua pemain utama di kawasan. Maklum, kedua negara mengadopsi pendekatan yang berbeda terhadap konflik di Suriah dan beberapa isu lain.

Upaya membangun kepercayaan di antara kedua negara, peningkatan volume perdagangan dan kerjasama ekonomi serta penanaman modal di sektor gas dan energi, merupakan indikasi dari tekad politik Tehran dan Ankara untuk memaksimalkan pemanfaatan kapasitas mereka, yang sejalan dengan penguatan hubungan bilateral.

Akan tetapi, atmosfir kerjasama ini dan integrasi yang didasarkan pada kepentingan nasional dan tujuan-tujuan regional kedua negara, selain menebarkan aroma keselarasan, juga bernuansa kompetisi. Persaingan antara kedua negara besar dan penting ini juga mempengaruhi kelompok-kelompok politik di Irak.

Konflik di Suriah membuka ruang untuk ketegangan baru antara Iran dan Turki. Kebijakan Republik Islam Iran mengenai masalah Suriah, didasarkan pada dukungan terhadap pemerintah Damaskus – sebagai salah satu pilar resistensi terhadap Israel di kawasan Timur Tengah – dan mempertahankan keamanan dan stabilitas negara itu. Sementara Turki bersama dengan Qatar dan Arab Saudi, mengadopsi kebijakan konfrontatif terhadap pemerintah Presiden Bashar al-Assad dan mendorong Suriah dalam sebuah perang saudara.

Krisis Suriah, meskipun dalam beberapa tahun terakhir telah menganggu hubungan Tehran-Ankara, tapi sekarang seiring dengan perkembangan situasi yang menguntungkan Assad dan runtuhnya segi tiga anti-Suriah (Turki, Qatar, dan Arab Saudi), Turki tampaknya memulai upaya baru untuk merekonstruksi hubungannya dengan negara-negara tetangga.
 
Davutoglu telah melakukan perjalanan ke Qatar dan Bahrain – sebelum singgah di Iran – untuk membahas isu-isu regional termasuk krisis di Suriah.

Kegagalan Ankara untuk memajukan kebijakan regionalnya di Suriah dan juga Mesir, sepertinya telah mendorong Davutoglu untuk kembali ke prinsip-prinsip strategis kebijakan luar negeri Turki serta meninjau ulang pendekatan dan sikap negara itu terhadap para tetangganya.

Turki sepertinya mulai menyadari ancaman dari unsur-unsur radikal di perbatasannya dengan Suriah dan sekarang saatnya merangkul kembali Iran sebagai salah satu pemain kunci bagi stabilitas kawasan.

Kunjungan Davutoglu ke Tehran merupakan sebuah kesempatan baik untuk memperbaiki keretakan dan menghilangkan benih-benih perselisihan dalam hubungan kedua negara. (IRIB Indonesia/RM)

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