Rabu, 01 Juli 2015

WHY ...DOLLAR CURRENCY..?? WHY NOT IDR....?? ....MONEY...MONEY... CURRENCY...CURRENCY..?? WORLD CURRENCY... ?? BANKING COY...?? MULTY FINANCE...?? MUTUAL TRUST FUND...?? IS IT THE REAL IMPORTANT FOR PAYMENT....?? LIABILITY...?? DEBT.. ?? TRADE...ETC..?? SO.. WHAT CURRENCY..?? UNTIL WHEN WE NEED MONEY .. ?? ... >>> For the first time in 35 years, an upcoming announcement could start a new era in modern finance, and could create a once-in-a-lifetime moneymaking opportunity. ...>>

If you own anything priced in U.S. dollars...
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Mark Down This Date: October 20, 2015
For the first time in 35 years, an upcoming announcement could start a new era in modern finance, and could create a once-in-a-lifetime moneymaking opportunity.
 
JARED KELLY
Thank you for joining us. I'm Jared Kelly... here with Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, a former mutual fund Vice President and hedge fund manager.
Steve is Chief Strategist at one of the world's largest independent financial research firms - with over 400,000 clients in 170 countries.
He's appeared on Fox Business, CNBC, and Bloomberg Television. Now Steve - you've just released one of the biggest financial predictions of your career... and it's been going viral. Give us the breakdown.
DR. STEVE SJUGGERUD
(Stansberry Research)
Well Jared, it's simple. I predict that on or around October 20th, 2015, we'll see an announcement from one of the most powerful financial organizations on earth... unlike anything we've seen in 35 years...
This announcement could cause a shift in the international currency markets on a scale we may never see again in our lifetime.
Billions of dollars could change hands in a single morning.
JARED
But what does that mean for everyday Americans?
STEVE





Well, for anyone who has their savings or investments priced in U.S. dollars, let me tell you - what I believe is coming to America in October will be incredibly important. I predict it'll trigger one of the biggest transfers of wealth in decades. This is something you'll tell your grandchildren about. You absolutely must be prepared, and understand what's about to happen.
If you own stocks, bonds, real estate, or even just cash in a bank account... I promise you, this upcoming announcement could be literally a once-in-a-generation opportunity to be in the right place at the right time.
JARED
What do you mean by that, exactly?
STEVE
I mean there's a chance to make a LOT of money on this thing. If you know what's likely to come in October, gains of 500% to 1,000% are within reach in the years to come.
And it all boils down to one organization: the IMF.

A Big Announcement

JARED
The International Monetary Fund.
STEVE
Right. In October, the International Monetary Fund is going to make a huge announcement that could radically alter the financial markets. It'll cause some assets to soar and others to crash. It'll start a domino effect that will essentially determine who in America gets rich in the years to come... and who struggles.
JARED
So just to be clear: You're not talking about inflation, interest rates, unemployment figures... or any of that stuff, are you?
STEVE
No. I'm talking about something that could move more money, more quickly - than anything I've personally seen in 20 years in finance.
And that's because what's happening in October will cause a major potential shift in the world CURRENCY markets. OK?
And what you have to realize, Jared, is that the currency market is the world's largest and most vital marketplace. It's much, much bigger than the stock market. It's also -
JARED
Wait a minute, Steve. Why would a move in the currency market have any real importance? I mean, usually that stuff only affects big banks or traders... or, I don't know, people living overseas...
STEVE
No.




The currency market is almost 200 times bigger than the stock market. OK? 200 times bigger. Let me tell you... When something big happens to the currency market - it affects absolutely everybody.
In October, I believe the IMF's currency announcement will trigger dramatic changes for anyone holding U.S. dollars. Whether you like it or not.
JARED
Have you seen this story in the press?
STEVE
That's the remarkable thing about it. Hardly anyone's talking about this. When I first started investigating this story I saw one small article on the back pages of Bloomberg, and another short piece that was practically buried in the Wall Street Journal. That's it. But that's already changing. I'm seeing more and more about it every day. But most investors still don't understand the consequences. And that's why, as the October deadline nears, I predict this story will explode. I mean, look what happened back in January - in Switzerland.

First the Franc... Next the Dollar

JARED
You mean the crisis with the Swiss Franc...
STEVE
Right. Most people don't know this... but on January 15th, 2015, around 9:30 in the morning - with basically NO WARNING whatsoever - the Swiss central bank announced they were depegging their nation's currency.
Remember, until that moment... the value of the Swiss Franc was tied to the Euro. Which meant the Franc was considered to be very safe. It had very low interest rates, so traders around the world could borrow with it.
JARED
But all that changed on January 15th...
STEVE
Right, it changed overnight, and it absolutely clobbered people who weren't prepared.






In a matter of hours, the Swiss Franc soared as high as 40%... which caused investors to dump Swiss stocks left and right, because the Franc was too expensive. I'm talking about quality stocks like Nestle, Credit Suisse, Cartier...
Billions were wiped off the Swiss stock market in what was the largest one-day drop in almost 30 years.
JARED
And now you're predicting a similar situation could soon unfold with the U.S. dollar... in the immediate aftermath of the October announcement from the IMF.
STEVE
These guys only get together twice a decade to talk about this type of currency shift, Jared, and what they're announcing could literally redefine the landscape of modern finance.
Just to give you a taste... When the Swiss Franc was depegged back in January, literally millions of middle-class Europeans outside of Switzerland lost a fortune... because they'd borrowed money in Swiss Francs. Right? So all of a sudden, they owed 40% more than they did the day before. It was a nightmare.
JARED
I remember hearing about that... And there were riots at the currency exchange centers...
STEVE
Well, I don't know if I'd call them riots...


But yes, within hours of the announcement - people all along the Swiss border realized there was an incredible arbitrage opportunity. So they flooded the local currency exchange centers to get Euros. I mean there were two-hour lines at currency kiosks. Some Swiss ATMs didn't even have enough Euros to dispense.
JARED
And I remember that made the Wall Street Journal...
STEVE
After the fact, sure, the story made headlines... but you didn't see a paper like the Wall Street Journal, USA Today, or The New York Times predict it, at least not to my knowledge. The mainstream media usually doesn't even see this kind of thing coming and they're typically incapable of giving people any warning.
Which is why I've been pounding the table about the October decision.
If a currency as minor as the Swiss Franc can rattle millions of people in Europe - you can just imagine what would happen if a big currency like the U.S. dollar goes through a change.
I mean, I can tell you the chief executive of Swatch - the Swiss watchmaker - said that depegging the Franc was literally a tsunami for the export industry, and the entire country.
One guy said his mortgage payment shot up more than $240 in a single week.
JARED
So Swiss citizens were essentially blind-sided by this out-of-the-blue announcement...
STEVE
They had no way of preparing.
I mean the average Swiss citizen didn't think twice about the Franc... the way people right here in the U.S. don't really think about the value of the U.S. dollar. Why should we? Everything we own is priced in dollars - and everything we buy is priced in dollars.
That's why I can say if you understand and know how to position yourself for what's coming to the dollar in October - almost NO other decision you make with your money will matter.
JARED
That's a bold prediction. Why do you say that?
STEVE
Well, you have to realize the Swiss Franc is like a speck of dirt compared to the worldwide importance and use of the U.S. dollar. OK?
If the recent shift in the Swiss Franc affected an entire country - just imagine what the ramifications could be in October.
Government and public debt in the U.S. is about 100 times more than that of Switzerland.
And there are over $1 trillion dollars of physical U.S. currency in the world, which is about 3,000 TIMES more than the circulation of Swiss Francs.
JARED
Wow... I didn't realize that. So you're predicting colossal-
STEVE
Wait a minute. Hold on. So what I'm saying is that the IMF announcement coming up in October will directly affect the global use of U.S. dollars.
OK? This won't be something that only hedge funds or international bankers feel. A swift movement in the dollar will affect nearly everyone in the world and Americans most of all.
And that's because so many U.S. dollars are in circulation, compared to any other currency. Not to mention how much more dollar-denominated debt there is - and things that are priced in U.S. dollars...
JARED
OK. Let's get something straight here for a second, Steve. What's going to happen in October? What's the IMF going to announce?

October 20: Huge threat to U.S. Dollar

STEVE
It all comes down to one thing:
The reserve currency system.
You see, the International Monetary Fund is like a club of bankers from all over the world who regulate the international monetary system. And in particular - they exert the rare power to control what's known as the world's "reserve currencies."
JARED
Correct me if I'm wrong, Steve... But most people believe there's only one single reserve currency in the world. But there are actually SEVEN major different reserve currencies right now, right?
STEVE
Right. Exactly. And that brings me to the heart of this upcoming announcement from the IMF. You see, reserve currencies are the most important financial instrument in the world.
It's what Governments use to pay their debts and diversify their savings and investments.
Any change to the world's "reserve currencies" has repercussions felt around the world, putting literally hundreds of billions of dollars into motion, in a matter of minutes. And they -
JARED
Stop right there. I got to ask you. Are you predicting the IMF is going to announce that the U.S. dollar is no longer the world's #1 reserve currency?
STEVE
No. Absolutely not. That's not what I'm saying at all, Jared, and I'm glad you brought that up, because I know lots of people have been talking about that idea in recent years. But that's not what I suspect the IMF will announce in October.
Believe it or not, what I'm predicting will actually have even bigger consequences. I'm convinced they're going to make a huge and dramatic change to the reserve currency SYSTEM - which will affect every single American in the next few years significantly. OK? But to explain what's going to happen - I need you to understand what a reserve currency really is, exactly.
JARED
Sure.
STEVE
Well by definition - a reserve currency is money held in significant quantities as a means of international payments and settlements. OK? Does that make sense?
JARED
Right, like an international basis for exchange...
STEVE
And as most Americans know, for about the last 48 years now, the United States Dollar has been the world's DOMINANT reserve currency. Right?
That means, the U.S. Dollar is the most widely accepted and widely used currency in the world.
JARED
And that's probably one of our biggest advantages as a nation, wouldn't you say? I mean most people don't realize what a huge privilege that is for the U.S. Dollar...
STEVE
I agree. I mean America is the only country in the world that doesn't have to pay for its imports in a foreign currency. We can simply print more money whenever we need to.
For other countries, it's almost unfair in comparison...


For example, when South Korea wants to buy beef from Argentina... both countries have to first switch their home currency into U.S. dollars to settle the transaction. Same thing if Germany wants to buy oil from Saudi Arabia.
So even when the U.S. isn't directly involved in a trade, our dollars usually are. And of course, that helps support the U.S. economy.
JARED
OK. And all of this feeds into the announcement that you're predicting in October...

The IMF's Private Meeting... revealed

STEVE
Right. Here's what's going to happen...
I predict that in October, the IMF will announce that there's going to be a NEW currency added to the pie, a NEW currency that will receive "reserve currency status."
And when that happens, billions of dollars - maybe even hundreds of billions - will flood AWAY FROM the U.S. dollar and INTO this new reserve currency.
JARED
But wait a minute... You just said you're not predicting the dollar will lose its dominant status...
STEVE
I'm not.
And that's the scary part about all this, Jared. People don't understand how subtle this is... and yet, how dangerous it is for everyday Americans.
What I'm predicting is that one particular currency that's NEVER been a reserve currency before is about to break through and BECOME a new reserve currency. OK? Which means that a foreign country will take a massive bite out of the pie the U.S. has been enjoying since World War Two.
Remember, the U.S. dollar is the dominant reserve currency, which means countries and businesses around the world must purchase OUR dollars to execute THEIR trades.  
But what happens if some other currency enters the game? Right? All of a sudden we've got competition... We have to share the pie...
JARED
What do you mean we have to "share the pie"?
STEVE
Well, let me show you something...


This is a pie chart that shows all of the currencies that qualify for "reserve" status, and the percentages in which they're held by governments around the world...
You can see that the U.S. dollar is, by far, the dominant reserve currency.
The only one that comes close is the Euro... and then after that, the Japanese yen.
So right now, the U.S. dollar owns a staggering 62% of the pie. Over half the central banks in the world hold money in the dollar.
JARED
But you're predicting that's all going to change... as it did for the Swiss Franc back in January...
STEVE
Right. You see, twice a decade, the executive board of the IMF meets to reassess the world's reserve currencies.
And we haven't seen a major change to the reserve currency system in over 35 years.
But in October, we're going to see a NEW currency enter the reserve system... and that single announcement will set off a chain reaction throughout the financial markets.
Some assets could absolutely soar and make investors a fortune, and other assets could fall. Investors who don't see it coming could be devastated.
JARED
It's scary to think how the markets were rattled by the Swiss Franc change back in January. The Swiss Franc doesn't even make up 1% of the pie, right?
STEVE
And that's exactly why I'm saying the coming shift in the U.S. dollar in October could lead to the biggest redistribution of wealth we've seen in the modern history of U.S. finance.
In fact, I estimate the October decision will alter about 10% to 15% of the world's reserve currency make-up. Again, we're talking billions and billions of dollars start moving if something big happens with the U.S. dollar.
JARED
OK... So what do you predict the currency pie will look like when this IMF announcement comes to pass?
STEVE
I think this move could eventually affect as much as 50% of the reserve currency pie, Jared.


You see - what you have to realize is that any big change to the way countries hold their reserve currencies will have an immediate and massive impact on the currency markets. And remember how big the currency market is, 200 times the size of the New York Stock Exchange.
It'll cause extraordinary shifts of wealth. While most people are trying to squeeze money out of ordinary stocks, bonds and real estate, I believe you could make gains up to 500% in the right investments - very, very safely in the coming years.
All because you took the time to prepare.
JARED
Let's talk about that for a second. Why do you believe certain investments will take off if a new currency is added to the reserve system in October? Wouldn't the entire U.S. market and economy take a hit?
STEVE
No. Some assets will take a hit, yes. But you have to remember what happened in America back in the '70s, when something similar happened.

Worse than 1970s Dollar Crisis

JARED
You mean the dollar crisis back in the '70s...
STEVE
Right. Some people may not remember this, but back on August 15th, 1971, President Richard Nixon went on live television and made a very important announcement to the American people. He announced that the United States dollar would no longer be backed by gold.
JARED
And of course, that was in response to the rise of energy prices and unemployment...
STEVE
Well, it happened for those reasons, but also because of the rise in international competition, and because U.S. gold reserves were being depleted at an extraordinary rate. Foreign governments were exchanging their U.S. dollars for real gold. And the reaction to the President's announcement was immediate. It created an era that's known today as "the Nixon Shock."
Governments around the world weren't allowed to exchange their U.S. dollars for U.S. gold anymore. The price of goods and gasoline skyrocketed. Nixon had to impose a 90-day freeze on wages just to stabilize inflation. Unemployment and inflation ultimately hit 10% in just a few years.
And people got out of the U.S. dollar, big-time.
JARED
But you're saying that even back then, during the dollar plunge of the 1970s, certain key assets took off and smart investors made money.
STEVE
Absolutely.

In fact, if you look at the entire spectrum of the market from that era, you'll notice that certain assets here and abroad began moving dramatically.
Silver, for example, took off by 739%.
And what I'm predicting for today, Jared, is that beginning in October, the same thing will happen again.
In the months and years to come, we'll see the U.S. dollar plunge just as it did back in the '70s. And as a result, some assets are going to get crushed - while others absolutely soar.

Billions could leave the U.S. Dollar

JARED
But Steve, let me ask you something...
Why do you believe this event will play out the way you predict? I mean do you have some sort of inside contact at the IMF? A personal connection?
STEVE
I don't need a connection at the IMF to understand what's coming, Jared. All the facts are plain to see right in the IMF's 2015 work schedule...



This is a document that's available to the general public. Now of course, like most official documents - it's full of acronyms and jargon.
But if you look at page 11 of the agenda, you'll see clear as day the exact timeline for how this will all play out in the months to come.
JARED
How so?
STEVE
Well, for one thing you can see that the IMF began their twice-a-decade currency discussion in May. They met to discuss a special basket of reserve currencies, what they call "SDRs"... and you can also see their plan to make their decision about any change to the basket and issue a public announcement by October.
Now as I've already said, I predict the IMF will announce that a new currency will be added to this basket of approved reserve currencies in October. I can't know the exact day, of course... but typically these announcements happen on a Tuesday, which means October 20th is the most likely date of the announcement. It could happen on the 18th... or maybe the 22nd... but the exact day doesn't matter.
What matters, Jared, is this: Of the six largest economies in the world, there's just ONE whose currency hasn't yet been declared an official reserve. OK? And you can probably guess which country I'm talking about...
JARED
China.
STEVE
China, China, China. And it's inevitable...





Anyone familiar with today's currency markets can see that the announcement in October will be all about China and their "renminbi" currency - known as "the yuan."
I'm as confident as I've been in two decades in finance, including after getting my Ph.D. in currencies, that in October, the IMF will approve the yuan as an additional world reserve currency. Period. End of story.
JARED
Wow... But if that happens, the Yuan will receive unprecedented power on the world stage. I mean governments and major banks around the globe will begin moving their holdings OUT of the U.S. dollar, and into the Chinese yuan.
Is that correct?
STEVE
Not only is that correct, Jared, but it'll happen to the tune of literally hundreds of billions of dollars - which means you need to position yourself for it NOW.
Millions of people holding certain U.S. assets could become poorer, virtually overnight. It'll be the biggest currency event of our lifetime.

Chinese currency to be world power

JARED
And yet the story isn't even mainstream yet...
STEVE
Not yet, but it will be... believe me. It'll be the top story on TV. That's why I've been begging people to take advantage of this coming event right now... while most people in the press don't even understand this thing.
Remember, whether you care about this stuff or not... this currency announcement is going to have a massive impact on every single American - because the majority of our savings and our investments are priced in U.S. dollars.
Demand for dollars will fall... Right? And that's the result of simple economics. If China's currency is approved for reserve currency status, it'll be a 10-point earthquake in the financial market.
JARED
Now Steve, let me just say: I don't necessarily doubt you about all this...
I mean for the past twenty years now, you've been predicting some of the biggest financial stories in the business...
The collapse of the Russian ruble in '98...
The rise in gold prices in the early 2000s...
The aftermath of the 2013 Argentinian currency crisis...
The collapse of the Japanese yen over the last 3 years...
And I know that you've made something like five or six different recommendations in the past couple years that have doubled - one of which is up as much as, what, 400% or so right now.
But having said all that - let me ask you this point-blank: How can you be 100% sure the Chinese yuan will win approval for world reserve currency status?
Where's your evidence?

4 Reasons the Chinese Yuan will Win Reserve Currency Status this October

STEVE
Well, the evidence is overwhelming. I'd say there are about four main reasons altogether.
The first is, you have to realize China now has the LARGEST economy in the world.


This happened in late 2014, actually... China's economy surpassed America's based sheerly on purchasing power. And the interesting thing is, this data comes from the International Monetary Fund - the very same group that will be making the decision about the Chinese yuan this October.
JARED
Well it definitely makes sense that the country with the biggest economy should have a currency that's part of the world's reserve system...
STEVE
Of course it makes sense!
I mean the fact is, China is the world's leading exporter as well as one of the world's largest creditors (second only to Japan). That means that most countries around the world look to CHINA for financial help... including the U.S.
Do you realize, Jared, that we borrow billions from China, every single day? In total, today we as a country owe China something like $1.3 trillion dollars.
JARED
That's insane.
So why has China even waited this long to be accepted as a world reserve currency? I mean if they wanted to, China has the ability to single-handedly crush the U.S. dollar, right? They could just dump their trillion dollars of U.S. debt obligations on the open market. The entire U.S. market would tremble.
STEVE
Theoretically maybe... but I don't think they would do that. I'm not predicting the end of the U.S. dollar, or anything like that. 
The point is that China now holds a tremendous amount of leverage in the financial world.
They're going to get what they want, or else they're going to make life very difficult for the United States and anyone else who owes them large amounts of money. The bottom-line is that it could spark a once-in-a-generation move in the world of international banking and finance. And if it all plays out the way I think it will - it's going to have a major impact on you and your money.
JARED
OK, what else? You said there were four reasons why the Chinese yuan will win approval...

Yuan already came close in 2010

STEVE
Right, and the second reason is that China already came quite close in 2010.
JARED
You mean this isn't the first time the IMF has considered the yuan for reserve currency status?
STEVE
No, it's not. The last time they had a meeting like this 5 years ago, the discussion was all about the yuan.
And the only reason the IMF decided against it back in 2010, was because they felt China wasn't a large enough exporter yet, and not enough people were trading in yuan.
But boy, that's definitely changed...
JARED
How so?
STEVE
Well in 2013, China became the number one exporter in the world...
The proportion of China's exports and imports settled in the yuan has increased nearly six fold in just three years.
In fact I saw in the International Business Times that the yuan is now among the top two most-used payment currencies in the world.
JARED
So in other words: The roadblocks that stopped this from happening in 2010 have been cleared in time for the coming October 2015 decision.

Yuan now used by 10,000s of banks

STEVE
It's been a gradual but rapidly growing process. And that brings me to the third reason why I think it's going to happen. The yuan is already unofficially a reserve currency all around the world...






I mean do you realize there are now a dozen official offshore yuan clearing centers? These are in places like Canada, Germany, Hong Kong...
Meanwhile more than 10,000 financial institutions are doing business in the Chinese yuan - which is actually up 1,000% from June 2011, if you can believe that.
JARED
Interesting. But how does that compare to the euro?
STEVE
Well as a matter of fact, in December 2013, the yuan OVERTOOK the euro to become the second most-used currency in global trade after the U.S. dollar. It's remarkable to think about that, but it's true. The data all comes from an unbiased international agency called SWIFT - which monitors all the global currency flows.
JARED
OK, well I can see your point there, Steve. But honestly, I think that sort of begs the question: If all these facts are so obvious, why isn't anyone taking steps to get ready?
I mean why aren't -

Bankers are getting ready for this

STEVE
Well no - there are plenty of major financial players who are definitely getting ready for this...
At least 40 central government banks have already invested in the yuan.
In fact some of the biggest commercial banks in the world -- HSBC, Deutsche Bank, Bank of America, Citigroup, you name it -- all trade and settle in the yuan.
But frankly, what catches my attention isn't necessarily what the banks are doing - but what happened recently with the British government...
JARED
What do you mean, exactly?
STEVE

Well, there was an announcement at the end of 2014 from a man named George Osborne...


He's the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, and he announced that the British government will be the first nation in the world to issue bonds denominated in Chinese yuan.
In fact, he described this event as a historic moment and said the British are confident the yuan will become, quote-unquote, "the main global reserves currency."
JARED
Wow. So this goes pretty high.
STEVE
It does... and that actually brings me to the fourth and final reason why I'm confident the yuan will win approval in October.
I've been carefully watching bankers... And it turns out we're seeing some of the world's most connected bankers step out in public and talk about the yuan becoming a new global reserve currency.
JARED
Can you give us an example?
STEVE
Well for one, a senior official at an Asian central bank told Reuters he thinks this could be the year the yuan is included in the currency basket.
And we saw something interesting on Twitter, actually.


Turns out the Official Monetary and Financial Institution Forum has a bunch of followers on Twitter... including renowned financiers like Jim Rickards. And they recently tweeted about this.
They said the renminbi - the Chinese currency - is likely to become an IMF reserve currency.
JARED
What about the academic world? Are there any professors or historians talking about this?
STEVE
Absolutely. We came across Benjamin Cohen, an economics professor at UC Santa Barbara who says, "It's very difficult to imagine [the IMF] won't [approve] the yuan..."
JARED
And what about the IMF itself? Has anyone on the committee leaked anything? Or... come out with some kind of behind-the-scenes revelation?
STEVE
Well, yes and no. They're pretty tight-lipped about this stuff... So we don't have very much.
But actually, my team and I did find a story buried in the "World" section of the Wall Street Journal. A quote from a gentleman named Zhu Min...


Now, this is the deputy managing director of the IMF... one of the key players in the upcoming decision in October. And believe it or not, he actually let it slip that he's, quote-unquote, "confident the Chinese yuan will be a global reserve currency."
So Jared I think you can see why I'm as confident as I've ever been about anything that the financial community definitely believes something big will happen with the yuan... And that the yuan gaining reserve currency status is simply the next logical step for China's currency.
JARED
So you believe the IMF's decision will have a tremendous impact on the life of anyone holding U.S. dollars in the coming years. 
STEVE
Not only that... But if you IGNORE this trend, you're overlooking a huge opportunity... I mean to my mind, it's probably the easiest, safest, and most reliable way to make money right now.
Not to mention, to protect your family from the inevitable crisis we're facing with the U.S. dollar.

Take these 4 steps now

JARED
So if someone who's watching this interview wants to get prepared and take advantage of this opportunity - what do you recommend?
STEVE
Well, I personally believe there are four steps you should take right now to prepare for the coming announcement about the Chinese Yuan.
You don't necessarily have to take all four of these steps... but altogether, these steps will protect you quite a bit. I mean, your current savings, your investments, your retirement accounts - all of these can be protected from the fall in the U.S. dollar, if you know what to do. And maybe more importantly, these steps can set you up to make extraordinary gains.
JARED
OK. So what's the first step you're recommending?
STEVE
The first step is simple. Make sure you've got the playbook for how this decision will unfold throughout the investment world.
JARED
What do you mean by "the playbook"?
STEVE
Well, what I mean is that some of the effects of the announcement will be very predictable. And there'll be an easy way to play it in the market.

Let's go back to the chart I showed you earlier about what happened back in the 1970s, the last time the dollar fell...





 Back then, a few very specific assets skyrocketed hundreds of percent.
And now, 40 years later, I think it's likely we'll see a few of these assets soar once again.
So essentially - what happened in the 1970s serves as a kind of playbook or "blueprint" for how I expect the IMF's October decision to unfold. That's why I recommend you know exactly which assets are most likely to rise.
JARED
Which assets are you referring to, specifically?
STEVE
Well, it's probably not going to be the exact same investments as last time. But some of them are definitely likely to soar again... and in particular, a few completely new ones, too... anywhere from 500% to 1,000% in the years to come.
But only if you take a position soon. Remember, by the time this stuff goes mainstream... it's always too late. The problem is, people don't have a clue how to determine which investments are the best to buy...
So I recently published a kind of playbook or guide called "How to Cash in on the Most Important Financial Decision of 2015."
It lays out everything you need to know about exactly how to take advantage of this upcoming IMF decision, along with a few additional opportunities.
You'll see specifically which investments went up the last time something like this happened. I'll tell you what to say to your broker and what price to pay for the assets I'm recommending.
You see - I created this guide because, frankly Jared, I haven't see anything else like this available anywhere - at any price.
 
JARED
And how much does your guide cost, exactly?
STEVE
Well, if you're truly interested in learning more about this situation, I've actually arranged something pretty neat with my publisher. Anyone who wants to have a copy can receive complimentary access to it.
JARED
Hold that thought for a sec - I definitely want to show our viewers how to get a copy of your research report.
But that's just one step you've described so far, right? What's the second step you're recommending? You said there were four steps - altogether - that you're recommending to prepare.

How to make 500% as the Dollar falls

STEVE
Right, and step #2 is pretty exciting, actually. It's an incredible but very safe way that many rich and quite sophisticated investors are preparing for the October announcement. In fact it's probably the best way I know right now to make 500% in America as the dollar goes down... tax free!
JARED
A way to make 500%, completely tax free? Is there a catch?
STEVE
No catch.
What's happening is that the government's out-of-control spending has created an opportunity to make 5 to 10 times your money right now.
And in fact I'd bet that as the dollar weakens, this opportunity could become even more lucrative, Jared. It has nothing to do with stocks, bonds, or options.
But it's in a market almost as big as the entire U.S. stock market.
JARED
So you're talking about a hard asset.
STEVE
That's right. It's a hard asset that's been proven to rise hundreds of percent when the value of the dollar is in jeopardy. Back in the '70s, for instance - this was one of the easiest 100% gains you could have made.
And it's very easy to buy. I've personally invested a big chunk of my own money in this kind of opportunity. And I've persuaded a lot of my friends and business associates to do the same.
JARED
But a hard asset... I mean, that's pretty unusual, Steve. What if you're wrong about this whole announcement... Aren't you then stuck holding a worthless asset?
STEVE
Not at all. Even if I'm completely wrong about my predictions for the currency market... And even if by some miracle Washington abandons its destructive financial policies... this single asset could still make you very good money.
And that's because, unlike stocks, this can NEVER go to zero. It always has value. It's safe... and again, I think it'll be the best way to make good money against a falling dollar... and for that matter, totally TAX FREE.
JARED
And you've written, in fact, a complete research report about this opportunity... correct?
STEVE
That's correct. I think this asset is set to go up very soon. And I don't see anyone else pounding the table about this.
So what I've done is created a research report that explains what this asset is, exactly, and how to buy in. It's called The Best Way to Make 500% in America, Tax Free, and if you're interested, I'm happy to give away access to it, along with a copy of the playbook I mentioned earlier.
JARED
Got it... before we get to that though... let's move on to the third step you're recommending. You're calling it "the Secret Currency Trade of the Decade." Can you explain a bit more?

Currency trade of the decade

STEVE
Sure. For folks who want to make money outside the box, Jared, the third step I'm recommending is a very clever and lucrative way to play the currency market, but WITHOUT ever having to actually trade foreign exchange.
Most people have no idea this opportunity even exists - but it's one of the best-performing assets of all time.
JARED
A way to play the currency market... without having to touch FOREX at all?
How is that possible, exactly?
STEVE
Well, it's an asset that offers all the protection of gold. OK? In fact it's backed by gold. But it's actually even better than gold, and could provide incredible gains in the years to come. It's totally off the radar.
JARED
So you're talking about a rare gold investment... which delivered massive gains the last time we saw a U.S. dollar crisis...
STEVE
Yes. It was actually the single most profitable thing you could have done with your money over the previous 20 years in the financial world. Salomon Brothers - the brokerage firm - ranked it Number One over a twenty-year span with an annual return of 17.3%.
I mean, this thing beat stocks, bonds, gold, silver, artwork, diamonds, U.S. Treasury bills, real estate, oil... You name it, Jared.
And as the dollar plummeted in the '70s, this single asset earned over 1,000%.
JARED
Wow. So much how do you think it'll return this time around - come the decision in October?
STEVE
Well, I can tell you that from 1986 and 1990, investors who took advantage of this investment saw profits of 665%. That's almost 8 times your money. Meanwhile, stocks were a rollercoaster... including Black Monday in 1987. This time, I think the gains could be even bigger.
JARED
And why's that?
STEVE
Well for years, Jared, many people were actually sort of afraid of owning various forms of gold, because it had been banned for so long.
But today the market is a lot bigger, which means the gains could be equally expansive and turn out to be 500% or more, very easily. And remember, this is a very safe asset. It's the kind of investment you can put a good portion of your savings in right now... and sleep well at night, which is one reason I think it'll become very popular.
But here too, Jared, it's hard to find the full details about this investment. So for someone who's interested, I've created a research report, which, again, I'm happy to give away access to... so you can see what this asset is and the best way to buy in.
My full report is called: The Secret Currency - How to make 500% gains in the coming years, with very little risk.
JARED
OK... And that bring us to the fourth and final step that you're recommending, Steve. Correct me if I'm wrong, but you've found something you say yourself may NOT be right for most people...

Money will pour into this market

STEVE
That's true. This may not be right for everyone... But the fourth step I'm recommending could be the ultimate grand-slam way to play this.
It all boils down to taking a step back and looking at this whole thing as a TREND. OK?
And by that I mean, what's happening with the Yuan's reserve currency status will likely become one of the biggest news stories and investment opportunities of the decade.
Money will absolutely POUR into China.
So if you want to go along for the ride, I'm recommending you take a small amount of money - whatever you're comfortable making a speculation with - and invest it into China.
JARED
Whoa... Invest in China? Isn't that pretty risky?
STEVE
Well... it might sound risky, but not the way I'm recommending you do it, no. Putting just a little bit of money into this trend could make a huge difference in your savings and retirement accounts.
And that's because most people don't know that when the Chinese stock market moves - it can skyrocket hundreds of percent. 
I mean do you realize, Jared, that from 2005 to 2007, the Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index soared more than 600%? That's triple what we just experienced over the past few years in the U.S. market.
JARED
What if I'm not comfortable investing in China?
STEVE
Well, that's fine, Jared. You don't have to. I know that most Americans don't want to put money in China. So if you'd rather just take the first three steps I outlined here today, and avoid China altogether, that's perfectly OK. You'll still make very good money in the coming years, very safely.
But...
For folks who don't mind making a speculation... I strongly recommend you at least consider a very small investment in China, to take advantage of what could be a big, big move.
JARED
OK, but what if I'm just too afraid to invest money in China? Am I going to be missing out on the whole shebang here?
STEVE
Well look, if you're afraid of putting money in China, but you're worried you'll miss out, I'd say take just 10% of what you'd normally invest... just 10% of your normal position size... and just dip your toe in these investments.
Even just a tiny position can make a big difference in your overall net worth.
JARED
OK. And which Chinese investments are you recommending, specifically? This is China we're talking about. There's got to be a ton of possibilities...
STEVE
There are a ton of possibilities...
But I've narrowed them down to just two of what I believe will be the safest ways to play this trend.
And in fact, these investments trade right here in the United States. They're cheap... easy to buy and sell... and are super low risk.
The first is something called "A-class" shares.
JARED
What are A-class shares?
STEVE
Well, this is something that takes advantage of a new investing rule most people haven't heard of yet. Essentially - it allows everyday Americans to own shares of stock typically reserved for Chinese locals.
These are the types of shares that I believe could earn 50%, 100% or even 150% very quickly. It's of the very best ways to play this trend.
But you need to get in now, if you're interested.
And that's because "A-shares" are already gaining momentum. It's something that's totally new and very exciting to a lot of people, which means I don't think you'll get in this cheap for much longer.
JARED
And you're saying that anyone can invest in A-class shares right here in America, through an ordinary broker.
STEVE
Right. It's incredibly simple. You don't have to deal with anybody in China to do this. It's as easy as buying shares of Coca-Cola.
And actually that brings me to the second investment I've found to take advantage of a boom in China.
What I've discovered is a way to get into some of the biggest and safest Chinese companies on the market. Some of these companies are enormous. For example, one of them is a cell phone provider with over 800 million clients.
JARED
800 million clients? That's, what, over twice the American population?
STEVE
Exactly. It's ridiculous the scope of what's going on in China... the size of some of these companies... And many are still totally unknown in the U.S.
But if more and more governments and companies around the world begin using the Yuan by the end of the year, these Chinese companies are going to be all over the news, Jared.
They'll be absolute magnets for cash.
In fact, history has shown us that when this particular investment goes up, it goes way, way up. During the 2005 bull market in China, it gained over 300%!
JARED
OK. So if someone who's watching this interview wants to learn more about these investments and get in, what do you suggest?
STEVE
Actually, Jared, all the details on investing in China are included in the playbook I mentioned earlier...
"How to Cash in on the Most Important Financial Decision of 2015." 
...which, like I said, I'm happy to give away complimentary access to. I wrote this guide because there's nothing like it available anywhere else to ordinary investors.
With this playbook, you don't need to worry about learning how to get into investments in China because I've already done all the work for you. I'll tell you stock tickers, prices, and exactly what to buy. Like I said, I expect these to be some of the quickest and safest gains you can make on this trend.

Get in now... before it's mainstream

JARED
Got it. Well, I'll be keeping a close watch in October. Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, this has been a fascinating talk. It's been an honor having you with us today.
Any final words?

 
STEVE
Yes, I just want to emphasize one last time that if you want to take advantage of this opportunity, you have to get in as soon as possible.
I'm seeing more and more press coverage every week. For example, I saw a story in Barron's recently... all about China becoming a reserve currency. And another story in Reuters that quoted yet another IMF Director who said it's not a question of "if" this will happen, but "when."
JARED
So right now is probably the only chance to get in on the ground floor.
STEVE
Right. That's why I agreed to do this interview - and that's why I'm urging anyone's who's interested to have a look at our research on this situation before it's too late and the story goes mainstream.
JARED
Got it. Thank you, Steve.
And as part of this exclusive interview with Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, you can get immediate access to ALL of the research that Steve mentioned today. It's easy, simple, and incredibly cheap.
For details, see below.
Thank you for joining us.

What I recommend you do right now

If you're interested in taking advantage of this opportunity, here's what I recommend you do right now...
In short, as I mentioned earlier -- Steve is the Chief Strategist for an independent financial research firm called Stansberry Research.
Stansberry has a staff of about 150 people stationed around the world -- from their headquarters in Baltimore, to their analysts in Barcelona, Ukraine, New York, Seattle, and Colorado. They're also in the process of opening a new office in Singapore.
Their objective is to find safe and profitable investment ideas, like the ones you just heard about -- which you are not likely to hear about anywhere else.
The IMF's October decision is one of the top stories Stansberry Research has been tracking this year.
And in the months to come, Stansberry Research believes a handful of other opportunities will pop up as more and more people become aware of what's about to happen.
For example, ways to protect yourself from a falling dollar, or ways to potentially profit from a rising Yuan.
So to help you get started -- Stansberry Research has a completely risk-free program in place.
When you take a risk-free trial subscription to Dr. Steve Sjuggerud's monthly research service, True Wealth, he will immediately give you access to all of the research reports he described today. This includes:
  • Research Report #1: How to Cash in on the Most Important Financial Decision of 2015
  • Research Report #2: The Best Way to Make 500% in America, Tax Free
  • Research Report #3: The Secret Currency - How to make 500% gains in the coming years, with very little risk
In addition to these 3 Research Reports, you'll begin receiving True Wealth on the third Friday of each month.
Steve's aim in True Wealth is to find unique, simple, and extremely safe ways to help you invest and pay for retirement.
His motto is simple:
You don't have to take big risks to make big gains.
You see, Steve doesn't write a typical "stock tout sheet"... not by a long shot.
He's not going to tell you about the next high-flying penny stock, the next biotech trend, or focus on one particular area of the market.
Instead, Steve does a completely different type of research.
To help him, he's hired a team of mathematicians and spent over a million dollars building an advanced computer system that allows him to identify indicators for some of the most important market moves, months in advance.
He also travels in person, and has logged hundreds of thousands of miles in the past few years alone to investigate his favorite investment opportunities firsthand.
In recent years, for example, Steve has traveled to China, Hong Kong, Thailand, Singapore, Switzerland, Fiji, France and Belize pursuing safe ways to help his readers make great profits.
Over the years, he's managed to call the timing of a lot of big market events.
Like the top of the market in January 2000. He wrote to his readers: "We are at the peak of most likely the greatest financial mania that will ever be seen in our lifetimes and quite possibly the greatest ever witnessed."
And then at the bottom in March of 2009 he said, "I am extremely bullish on stocks, starting now."
This is why Steve has been asked to appear on some of the biggest financial news shows, month after month. For example, in just the past six months, he has appeared on Fox Business, CNBC, and Bloomberg Television
And this is why many investment professionals have used Steve's ideas for themselves and their clients.
For example, people like:
  • Alex L., a NYSE stockbroker with two decades of experience, who says: "I learned more from Dr. Sjuggerud in the last 8 months about the wide universe of investments than I learned in 19 years as a broker. Steve's recommendations are conservative, they make sense, and they regularly make large profits -- much more than one would expect from safe investments."
  • And Gary M., a Senior VP at one of the world's biggest investment firms, who called Steve Sjuggerud's recommendations "the major arrow in his quiver." He said he used them for his clients' accounts all the time.
Like a lot of wealthy investors, Gary reads a lot, constantly looking for investment ideas. Steve's research, he says, "ranks at the very top."
So how much does Steve's work cost... and how can you get started?
Well, a one-year subscription, including everything mentioned here, normally costs $99 per year -- that's what many others have paid.
But right now, you can try Steve's research for less than HALF the normal rate. You'll pay just $39 for an entire year. That's a 66% discount.
Why so cheap?
Well -- as Steve explains it, the most important part of his business is whether subscribers stick with him for the long-term. But he realizes you've got to try his work first, to see if it's right for you.
And that's why, through this special interview presentation, Steve is making it so cheap, and essentially risk-free to try.
In short, you'll have the next four months to take a look at the Research Reports Steve described, plus the next four issues of Steve's True Wealth newsletter... plus the next four months of his DailyWealth email reports.
If you decide for any reason within the first 4 months that Steve's research is not right for you, simply contact his firm, Stansberry Research, and you can receive a full refund and keep everything you've received so far.
In other words, through this offer, you are agreeing only to TRY Steve's work to see if you like it.
I hope you take advantage of this opportunity.
I think it's going to be by far the most important investment trend of the next five years and beyond. And you can be among the first to get in on it right now.
You can set yourself up for extraordinary gains by simply making a few simple and safe moves today.
One more thing you might want to know: Stansberry Research has hundreds of thousands of customers across the globe.
They've grown to be the biggest research organization of their kind in the world... and have an A+ rating with the leading online reputation management website. You can't reach A+ status without lots and lots of happy customers.
Plus, Stansberry Research has earned something else no rating agency can ever bestow...
To date, they have had more than 35,000 subscribers from around the globe who are so happy with the research that they want to receive it for "Life". In this industry, these "lifetime subscriptions" are the absolute strongest endorsement any business can receive, because it comes directly from the people who matter most -- the customers.
Of course, you don't have to make any big commitment whatsoever, now or ever. Steve is simply offering a no-risk trial subscription. Take an immediate look at all the Research Reports he described today.
All this information is yours to keep, whether you choose to continue reading Steve's work or not. You're not risking even a penny to check everything out.
Get started now by clicking the "Subscribe Now" link below. This will take you to a secure order form, where you'll have a chance to review everything before submitting your order.
 



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Financial intermediary

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Financial_intermediary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A financial intermediary is a financial institution that connects surplus and deficit agents. According to classical and neoclassical economics, as well as most mainstream economics, a financial intermediary is typically a bank that consolidates deposits and uses the funds to transform them into loans.[1] According to some heterodox economists[2][3] and others,[4][5] financial intermediaries simply do not exist.
Through the process of financial intermediation, certain assets or liabilities are transformed into different assets or liabilities.[1] As such, financial intermediaries channel funds from people who have extra money or surplus savings (savers) to those who do not have enough money to carry out a desired activity (borrowers).[6]
A financial intermediary is typically an institution that facilitates the channeling of funds between lenders and borrowers indirectly.[7] That is, savers (lenders) give funds to an intermediary institution (such as a bank), and that institution gives those funds to spenders (borrowers). This may be in the form of loans or mortgages.[8] Alternatively, they may lend the money directly via the financial markets, which is known as financial disintermediation.
In the context of climate finance and development, financial intermediaries generally refer to private sector intermediaries, such as banks, private equity, venture capital funds, leasing companies, insurance and pension funds, and micro-credit providers.[9] Increasingly, international financial institutions provide funding via companies in the financial sector, rather than directly financing projects.[10]

Contents

Functions performed by financial intermediaries

The hypothesis of financial intermediaries adopted by mainstream economics offers the following three major functions they are meant to perform:
  1. Creditors provide a line of credit to qualified clients and collect the premiums of debt instruments such as loans for financing homes, education, auto, credit cards, small businesses, and personal needs.
    Converting short-term liabilities to long term assets (banks deal with large number of lenders and borrowers, and reconcile their conflicting needs)
  2. Risk transformation[citation needed]
    Converting risky investments into relatively risk-free ones. (lending to multiple borrowers to spread the risk)
  3. Convenience denomination
    Matching small deposits with large loans and large deposits with small loans

Advantages and disadvantages of financial intermediaries

There are two essential advantages from using financial intermediaries:
  1. Cost advantage over direct lending/borrowing[citation needed]
  2. Market failure protection the conflicting needs of lenders and borrowers are reconciled, preventing[citation needed] market failure
The cost advantages of using financial intermediaries include:
  1. Reconciling conflicting preferences of lenders and borrowers
  2. Risk aversion intermediaries help spread out and decrease the risks
  3. Economies of scale using financial intermediaries reduces the costs of lending and borrowing
  4. Economies of scope intermediaries concentrate on the demands of the lenders and borrowers and are able to enhance their products and services (use same inputs to produce different outputs)
Various disadvantages have also been noted in the context of climate finance and development finance institutions.[9] These include a lack of transparency, inadequate attention to social and environmental concerns, and a failure to link directly to proven developmental impacts.[11]

Types of financial intermediaries

According to the dominant economic view of monetary operations,[5] the following institutions are or can act as financial intermediaries:
According to the alternative view of monetary and banking operations, banks are not intermediaries but "fundamentally money creation" institutions,[5] while the other institutions in the category of supposed "intermediaries" are simply investment funds.[5]

Summary

Financial intermediaries are meant to bring together those economic agents with surplus funds who want to lend (invest) to those with a shortage of funds who want to borrow.[12] In doing this, they offer the benefits of maturity and risk transformation. Specialist financial intermediaries are ostensibly enjoying a related (cost) advantage in offering financial services, which not only enables them to make profit, but also raises the overall efficiency of the economy. Their existence and services are explained by the "information problems" associated with financial markets.[13]
The alternative view of banking operations treats almost all institutions

THE ILLUMINATIST.. SAY: POWER-GOLD-SEX-AND GOD..?? 

THE QUR'AN -ALBAQARAH -VERSES 177: 
IT IS NOT RIGHTEOUSNESS THAT YOU TURN YOUR FACES TOWARDS THE EAST (IDEALISM) AND  THE WEST (MATERIALISM-NATURALISM), THE RIGHTEOUSNESS IS THIS THAT ONE SHOULD BELIEVE IN ALLAH AND THE LAST DAY AND THE ANGELS AND THE BOOK AND THE PROPHETS, AND GIVE AWAY WEALTH OUT OF LOVE FOR HIM TO THE  NEAR OF KIN AND THE ORPHANS AND THE NEEDY AND THE WAYFARER AND THE BEGGAR ND FOR (THE EMANCIPATION OF) THE CAPTIVES, AND KEEP UP PRAYER AND PAY THE POORRATE; AND THE PERFORMERS OF THEIR PROMISE, AND THE PATIENT IN DISTRESS AND AFFLICATION AND IN TIME OF CONFLICTS--THESE ARE  THEY WHO ARE TRUE (TO THEMSELVES) MD THESE ARE THEY WHO GUARD ( AGAINST EVIL)

THE QUR'AN -ALIHLASH -VERSES 1-4: 
(1) SAY: HE , ALLAH , I S ONE (2) ALLAH IS HE ON WHOM ALL DEPEND (3) HE BEGETS NOT, NOR IS HE BEGOTTEN (4) AND NONE IS LIKE HIM.
 

The Challenge of Comparative Religion

An excerpt from Chapter 1 of The New Sciences of Religion: Exploring Spirituality from the Outside In and Bottom Up (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010)
Buy the book on AmazonReligions themselves tend to be uncomfortable with the label "religion," suggesting that they are merely one among many. "Authentic" Christianity, for instance, invites its followers to have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ, the Lord and Savior, and "by no other name" shall salvation be achieved (Acts 4:12). It makes an exclusivist claim, although we could point to other scriptural sources and interpretations that would argue within the Christian idiom against this very exclusivity.9
There is simply no such thing as "generic religion," which puts a damper on the proposed scientific study of religion. The twentieth-century Harvard philosopher and atheist George Santayana (1863-1952) notes:
All religion is positive and particular. Any attempt to speak without speaking any particular language is not more hopeless than the attempt to have a religion that shall be no religion in particular. . . . Every living and healthy religion has a marked idiosyncrasy. Its power consists in its special and surprising message and the bias, which that revelation gives to life. The vistas it opens and the mysteries it propounds are another world to live in: and another world to live in -- whether we expect ever to pass wholly over into it or no -- is what we mean by having a religion.10

An Analogy to Linguistics
Let's turn Santayana's analogy between particular religions and particular human languages upside down, recalling also our discussion of Goethe's aphorism. Instead of supporting his extreme particularist conclusion about religions as incommensurate, the analogy to human languages actually provides a new way to think in universal categories about diverse religions.
While all human languages are idiosyncratic, there is, nevertheless, the field of linguistics that allows us to talk about the common grammatical structures of different human languages. True, one cannot practice linguistics without using a specific human language to discuss the philosophy and structure of language. English linguists speak in English as they compare Chinese and Russian. French linguists speak in French as they compare Hindi and Arabic. Chinese-, Russian-, Hindi-, and Arabic-speaking linguists are happy to return the favor in comparing English and French. All of them use the same concepts and terminology -- nouns, verbs, tense, phonemes, semantic meanings, semiotic codes, and so on -- and apply these concepts universally to deciphering the universal regularities of particular human languages.
Nor are these particular living human languages ever really isolated islands unto themselves. Languages evolve over time, and this often involves significant borrowing from other languages. Furthermore, while something is surely lost in translation, every living language can be translated. The term for "dog" or "god" in various languages is particular, seemingly arbitrary, but the objects that they universally reference are real, explicitly in the case of the dog and perhaps implicitly in the case of the god. The diversity of human languages is surely idiosyncratically evolved, but it would be strange to declare chauvinistically that the only valid way one can order a cup of coffee is in German. Eine Tasse Kaffee, bitte! The implication here is that there is a universal "grammar" of religions, that they are not fundamentally incommensurate, and that we can go beyond the peculiarities to decode common patterns, structures, and functions.
Religions in this view are minimally systems, like human languages, that systematically code and transmit information. The British philosopher John Bowker also uses this definition: "At their most basic level, religions can best be understood as systems organized (in very different ways) for the coding, protection and transmission of information (some of it verbal, but a great deal of it, in the religious case, non-verbal)." This seems to me an accurate and purely descriptive account of religion, but Bowker goes on to suggest that religions are "discoveries of human competence," "proved to be of worth," and "tested through many generations."11 This positive assessment of religion will be explicitly challenged by many of the theorists and scientists we encounter in the following chapters, who will claim that religions are inventions of human incompetence of little worth and now proven to be fundamentally wrong in detail.
The analogy to human languages is also illuminating on another level because it can account for the variety of religions in the world today. The idea of creating a universal human language, Esperanto, is and was a misconceived idea because it would necessarily become merely one new particular language among the many. So too is a religion of all religions, which would simply be a new particular religion, as in the case of the Baha'i faith. A science of all religions, not unlike linguistics, may be a possibility, though we might be forced to employ a particular religious idiom (and practice) in order to plum the deeper semantics of the phenomena. As Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), the founder of modern linguistics, successfully proposed, we can separate the regular structure of a language -- langue -- from the meaningful uses of the language in everyday situations -- parole. This distinction between the semiotics of language and the semantic reference of language can be only a temporary move, however, because we cannot understand how languages arise and evolve over time without understanding their semantic uses in living cultures.12 Here, then, is our analogy between the semiotics-structure of religion and the semantics-meanings of religion. An adequate science of religion can only temporarily ignore the questions of meaning and reference, if we are to understand fully the phenomenon, its origins, uses, and evolution.
This brings us to the idea of particularist universalism in religion, a concept that I will return to at the end of this book. The idea is again by analogy to human languages and linguistics. The ultimate truth of religion will best be explored inside a particular religious idiom, much as we live, love, learn, work, and dream within one particular human language at a time. And while it is possible to be bilingual and multilingual, it is not possible to speak two languages simultaneously. This discussion of particular idiosyncrasies and universal truths of religion, however, must be postponed, until we complete the first stage of this phenomenological inquiry.
The Universal Grammar of Religions
I will now make a bold assertion, which many will find implausible. There is more functional diversity within a great tradition than between great traditions. By way of example, I am asserting that there is more functional diversity of beliefs and practices among Christians than between Christians in general and Buddhists in general. Of course, Christians and Buddhists do not share the same foundational stories and scriptures, so they disagree about dogma and doctrines. If, on the other hand, we undertake a phenomenological and functional analysis of religions, we will discover many commonalities in the range of actual practices and the "structures" of actual beliefs.
Western appropriations of Buddhism tend to focus on meditative practices and supposed lack of belief in supernatural deities, but this completely obscures the actual practices of the vast majority of Buddhist around the world. By far the largest branch of Buddhism is known as Pure Land Buddhism, in which believers devote themselves to a particular bodhisattva in hope of sitting out eternity in a hedonistic heaven through the grace and supernatural intervention of the bodhisattva. It turns out that the god-like bodhisattva has made a Jesus-like sacrifice on our behalf. During my recent stay in Sri Lanka, I witnessed many of these "Mahayana" practices at Buddhist temples and homes in an ostensible orthodox Theravada country. Technically, the bodhisattva is not a Theravada concept, but in practice, lay Buddhists in Sri Lanka, with the support of the monks, make offerings and recite prayers in the hope of superhuman assistance in their daily lives and future incarnations. This feature seems to me to be functionally equivalent to Pentecostal Christianity, Bhakti Hinduism, and devotional Islam, and everywhere throughout the world ends up being the most popular form of religiosity.

Buy the book on AmazonSimilarly, scholars of religion and apologists for specific religions have tended to draw a sharp divide between the monotheism of the Abrahamic faiths, the "Western religions," and the polytheism and nontheism of "Eastern religions." Here, too, I think we miss the point. In practice, the monotheistic traditions often elevate Satan to a force independent of God, thus reverting to what is technically a heresy and turning themselves into something more akin to Zoroastrianism, with its concept of the dueling deities of Light and Darkness. Furthermore, the monotheistic faiths include a whole apparatus of angels, archangels, and saints, which further blurs the lines with polytheism. In his book God: A Biography, Jack Miles offers a psychohistorical reading of the Hebrew Bible and concludes that we have traded many gods with many personalities for a single God with multiple personality disorder.13 Hinduism, in theory, is more accepting of this ambiguity, even as it affirms its own kind of transcendent unity in the notion of Brahma. "The Truth is one, but the wise man calls it by many names" is the classic verse from the ancient Rig Veda (1.164.46).
The diversity of world religions is perhaps analogous to what we now know about ethnic diversity and genetics. If we trace the genetic diversity of humans through our mitochondrial DNA, which is transmitted only on the female side, it turns out that we may have more in common genetically with someone of another race than with someone in our own race. It turns out that most of the phenotypic differences between different races╤skin color, eye color and shape, hair color, and so on --have been only recently been acquired in the evolution of humanity. As recently as seventy thousand years ago, humanity may have experienced sudden catastrophic climate change due to the eruption of Mt. Toba in Indonesia, which reduced the human population to as little as ten thousand breeding pairs. We are all descendants of these survivors. Most of our racial and genetic diversity as a species is thought to have developed after this earth-shattering event.14
I am arguing again that the new sciences of religion should be understood as something akin to the field of linguistics; they are seeking the "grammatical" structures of religion in general based on a careful analysis of particular religions. We can also study the evolution of particular religions and their family trees, just as we study the evolution of languages. Only then can we engage in philosophical speculation about the nature of religion as such and whatever universals might be deduced or implied. Based on the biological and anthropological commonality, there is a lot of exciting work to be done, but this must also embrace textual, theological, and philosophical analyses. It is time for the intellectual pendulum to swing forward toward a study of the universality of religions, though in doing so, we cannot ignore the differences and the concrete particulars.
Notes
9. It is not the case that Christianity and other religions necessarily reject the validity of other faiths, even as they might argue for their own superiority over other approaches. Part of the genius of Hindu civilization is its ability to absorb and incorporate many diverse religions and incompatible philosophies into its synthesizing spirit. Jews understand themselves to be a chosen people with a special covenant with God, but this is not to say that God does not also relate to other peoples and faiths. Islam also affirms the diversity of faiths as part of God's plan: "We have created you male and female, and have made you nations and tribes that you may know one another. The noblest of you, in the sight of Allah, is the best in conduct" (Qu'ran, Sura 49:13). These are complex texts and traditions, so other verses and examples also can be cited to contradict this implied inclusivity. At this stage, I need only note that particular religions recognize and sometimes affirm the legitimacy of other particular religions. Concerns about orthodoxy and heterodoxy are historically mostly matters internal to particular traditions, not so much between traditions.
10. George Santayana, Life of Reason, vol. 3, Reason in Religion (New York: Prometheus Books, [1905-06] 1998).
11. John Bowker, The Sense of God (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, [1973] 1995), x.
12. Paul Ricoeur, Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning (Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1976).
13.  Jack Miles, God: A Biography (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995).
14. Stanley H. Ambrose, "Late Pleistocene Human Population Bottlenecks, Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans," Journal of Human Evolution 34, no. 6 (1998); Ambrose, "Volcanic Winter, and Differentiation of Modern Humans," Bradshaw Foundation, http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/stanley_ambrose.php. Accessed June 12, 2009.

 

Apa yang membedakan antara riba dan perdagangan?


Sabda Rasululullah SAW, "Akan datang kepada umat ini suatu masa nanti ketika orang-orang menghalalkan riba dengan alasan: aspek perdagangan" (HR Ibnu Bathah, dari Al 'Auzai )

Apa yang membedakan antara riba dan perdagangan ?? sebagai umat muslim yang beriman yang ingin mendapatkan rahmat dari Alloh SWT kita wajib melindungi / menjauhkan diri kita dan keluarga dari perkara riba,
mudah2an artikel in bermanfaat untuk kita sekalian..

mari kita mulai dengan pemahaman riba berdasarkan kaum kavitalis 
Pandangan Neoklasik tentang Bunga

Menurut Adam Smith dan Ricardo
bunga uang merupakan suatu ganti rugi yang diberikan oleh si peminjam kepada pemilik uang atas keuntungan yang mungkin diperolehnya dari pemakaian uang terse­but. Dengan demikian, bunga uang adalah hadiah atau balas jasa yang diberikan kepada seseo­rang karena dia telah bersedia menunda peme­nuhan kebutuhannya



Marshall
Bunga uang dilihat dari segi pena­waran merupakan balas jasa terhadap pengorbanan bagi kesediaan seseorang untuk menyimpan sebagian penda­patannya ataupun "jerih payah"nya melaku­kan penungguan

Bunga
Bagi Hasil
a.
Penentuan bunga dibuat pada waktu akad dengan asumsi harus selalu untung
a.
Penentuan besarnya rasio/ nisbah bagi hasil dibuat pada waktu akad dengan berpedoman pada kemungkinan untung rugi
b.
Besarnya persentase berdasarkan pada jumlah uang (modal) yang dipinjamkan.
b.
Besarnya rasio bagi hasil berdasarkan pada jumlah keuntungan yang diperoleh
c.
Pembayaran bunga tetap se-perti yang dijanjikan tanpa pertimbangan apakah proyek yang dijalankan oleh pihak nasabah untung atau rugi.
c.
Bagi hasil tergantung pada keuntungan proyek yang dijalankan. Bila usaha merugi, kerugian akan ditanggung bersama oleh kedua belah pihak.
d.
Jumlah pembayaran bunga tidak meningkat sekalipun jumlah keuntungan berlipat atau keadaan ekonomi sedang "booming".
d.
Jumlah pembagian laba meningkat sesuai dengan peningkatan jumlah pendapatan.
e.
Eksistensi bunga diragukan (kalau tidak dikecam) oleh semua agama termasuk Islam.
e.
Tidak ada yang meragukan keabsahan bagi hasil



investasi versus bunga
Investasi adalah kegiatan usaha yang mengandung risiko karena berhadapan dengan unsur ketidakpastian. Dengan demikian, perolehan kembaliannya (return) tidak pasti dan tidak tetap.
Membungakan uang adalah kegiatan usaha yang kurang mengandung risiko karena perolehan kembaliannya berupa bunga yang relatif pasti dan tetap.

Makna RIBA
Makna bahasa
Bertambah atau bertambah tinggi
Makna ‘urf
Tambahan yang diberlakukan sebagai imbalan penundaan pembayaran hutang


Badr Ad Din Al Ayni pengarang Umdatul Qari Syarah Shahih Al Bukhari:
“Prinsip utama dalam riba adalah penambahan. Menurut syariah riba berarti penambahan atas harta pokok tanpa adanya transaksi bisnis riel.”
Imam Sarakhsi dari mazhab Hanafi:
“Riba adalah tambahan yang disyaratkan dalam transaksi bisnis tanpa adanya iwadh (atau padanan yang dibenarkan syariah atas penambahan tersebut.”
Raghib Al Asfahani
“Riba adalah penambahan atas harta pokok”

Imam An Nawawi dari mazhab Syafi’i:
Salah satu bentuk riba yang dilarang Al Qur’an dan As Sunnah adalah penambahan atas harta pokok karena unsur waktu. Dalam dunia perbankan hal tersebut dikenal dengan bunga kredit sesuai lama waktu pinjaman.
Qatadah:
“Riba jahiliyah adalah seseorang yang menjual barangnya secara tempo hingga waktu tertentu. Apabila telah datang saat pembayaran dan si pembeli tidak mampu membayar, maka ia memberikan bayaran tambahan atas penangguhan.”

Zaid bin Aslam:
“Yang dimaksud dengan riba jahiliyyah yang berimplikasi pelipat-gandaan sejalan dengan waktu adalah seseorang yang memiliki piutang atas mitranya. Pada saat jatuh tempo ia berkata: ‘bayar sekarang atau tambah.’”
Mujahid:
“Mereka menjual dagangannya dengan tempo. Apabila telah jatuh tempo dan (tidak mampu bayar) si pembeli memberikan ‘tambahan’ atas tambahan waktu.”
Ja’far Ash Shadiq dari kalangan Syiah:
Ja’far Ash Shadiq berkata ketika ditanya mengapa Allah I mengharamkan riba – “Supaya orang tidak berhenti berbuat kebajikan. Karena ketika diperkenankan untuk mengambil bunga atas pinjaman, maka seseorang tidak berbuat ma’ruf lagi atas transaksi pinjam-meminjam dan sejenisnya. Padahal qard bertujuan untuk menjalin hubungan yang erat dan kebajikan antarmanusia.”

Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, pendiri madzhab Hanbali
“Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal ketika ditanya tentang riba beliau menjawab: Sesungguhnya riba itu adalah seseorang memiliki hutang maka dikatakan kepadanya apakah akan melunasi atau membayar lebih. Jikalau tidak mampu melunasi, ia harus menambah dana (dalam bentuk bunga pinjam) atas penambahan waktu yang diberikan.”

Makna Syar’i
Tambahan yang terjadi pada barter (tukar menukar) beberapa jenis barang tertentu yang sudah dibatasi oleh syara’, baik dengan sebab berlebih ketika terjadi tukar-menukar dua barang sejenis di majlis aqad (riba fadhl) atau dengan sebab terlambat menyerahkan barang oleh satu pihak (riba nasi’ah).
HUKUM RIBA
1. QS Al Baqarah 275 – 279
Orang makan riba dianggap gila seperti kemasukan syetan
Anggapan jual beli sama dengan riba
Dihalalkan jual beli diharamkan riba
Ancaman pemakan riba
Seruan meninggalkan sisa riba

QS Ali Imran : 130
Larangan memakan riba yang berlipat ganda
QS An Nisa : 160 – 161
Celaan bagi Yahudi karena melanggar larangan memakan riba
Riba adalah memakan harta orang dengan cara bathil
QS Ar Rum : 39
Riba tidak menambah sedangkan zakat akan menambah



HUKUM RIBA - Hadits
Riba adalah salah satu di antara 7 dosa besar
Ada 73 pintu dosa bagi pemakan riba
Dosa terkecil riba seperti dosa anak yang menzinai ibu kandungnya 
 
 
 

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